What animals is A.I. currently smarter than?
Can artificial intelligence rival the animal kingdom? We compare the intelligence of four animals to current A.I. capabilities.
The world is teeming with intelligence, from little wormy grubs in the garden to physicists poring over equations in university offices. In the past few years we’ve also come to view our virtual assistants as possessing some kind of intelligence—imperfect and sometimes downright creepy, but intelligence nonetheless. A.I. has come a long way since Microsoft’s Clippy.
Whether we’re talking to Siri like a friend or asking our dogs for advice, humans love to imagine other animals’ intelligence. As we enter into the infancy of A.I., it’s fun to speculate how some existing lifeforms stack up to our best A.I so far. Scientifically, it’s hard to get a read on how they compare, but there are some interesting comparisons to be made.
Intelligence and consciousness is still a widely debated topic amongst scientists and philosophers alike. There is no exact consensus on what makes a human or animal, let alone an A.I. software program or robot, have intelligence. One recent idea of determining general intelligence comes from Robert Sternberg who put forth the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. He argued that intelligence cannot be solely derived from IQ tests but instead can be broken down into analytic, creative, and practical.
Today we view animal cognition as something worthy of increased study. It’s possible that many different kinds of animals have a much richer inner life than we ever imagined. Understanding animal intelligence can help us change and evolve our views on creating A.I. systems, as research scientist Heather Roff writes for The Conversation, "Instead of thinking about A.I. as something superhuman or alien, it’s easier to analogize them to animals, intelligent nonhumans we have experience training." Roff continues: "The analogy works at a deeper level too. I’m not expecting the sitting dog to understand complex concepts like “love” or “good.” I’m expecting him to learn a behavior. Just as we can get dogs to sit, stay and roll over, we can get A.I. systems to move cars around public roads. But it’s too much to expect the car to “solve” the ethical problems that can arise in driving emergencies."
Will we ever have A.I. that understands feelings and ethics, and how far have we come on the road to creating intelligence?
How to benchmark artificial intelligence
Even the most advanced A.I. today is, in a way, just intelligence mimicry. While Google search can spit out billions of queries in mere seconds, it’s not fully encompassing sentient intelligence. It’s taking a human skill like browsing and putting it into overdrive. Watson might have had an excellent jeopardy performance, but it doesn’t mean that it really understood any of the questions it was asked in the way a human might.
No current computer or any type of A.I. can be said to have the least amount of sentience compared to the animal kingdom, especially when many scientists posit that some animals have a kind of consciousness. Instead, artificial intelligence seeks to have computers do things that different kinds of minds can accomplish. Researchers are working on teaching computers to perceive and recognize patterns in massive datasets. The ability for a computer to put together different skills and patterns by itself is a huge accomplishment. This is the benchmark we’ll be using to compare animal intelligence to the best in class A.I. systems.
A.I. vs. cockroaches
Cockroaches are some of the smartest insects around and their intelligence is related to their vision. They’ve also been known to move to colder habitats when they are infected with a parasite, which means they've learned a behavior that will suppress parasite development.
Cockroaches are not usually considered social animals, but do have some considerable group behavioral complexity. For example, the Periplaneta americana cockroach species tend to live in the darkest place it can find with as many other cockroaches as possible. Individuals will decide whether or not they want to shelter in a dark area due to population density—the more bodies, the better. This type of intelligence was meddled with when researchers put a robotic cockroach in a group of live insects. It was able to influence their actions considerably.
Cockroaches are relatively simple animals, but even so, A.I. still lags behind. Theoretical physicist and science popularizer Michio Kaku summed up and compared current A.I. to cockroaches:
"At the present time, our most advanced robots, some of which are built in Japan and also at MIT, have the collective intelligence and wisdom of a cockroach; a mentally challenged cockroach; a lobotomized, mentally challenged cockroach."
In this particular instance of changing cockroach shelter patterns, an A.I. robot was practically as smart as a roach in terms of influencing group behavior.
A.I. vs. worms
In a shared open source A.I. endeavor, the Open Worm project is the simulation of an artificial worm based on the neurons of a real worm’s nervous system. In recent years there was a breakthrough where the software independently controlled a lego robot.
The worm is a Caenorhabditis elegans and without any previous programming was able to approach and back away from obstacles while being stimulated by a search for food. The project’s aim is to digitally model the worm in a virtual environment. Eventually, they’d like to map everything down exactly in a complete anatomical reproduction of the worm.
Even with the simplicity of this worm structure, researchers were only able to project a third of the worm’s neurons: those responsible for movement and display behavior. It still has a long way to go before becoming as intelligent as a real worm.
A.I. vs. cats and dogs
Our two favorite domestic friends are some intelligent beasts. In the age-old debate of cats versus dogs, scientists have proven that canines have an I.Q. of a two-year-old child. While it’s long been thought that cats are brainer than dogs, new research suggests dogs actually have double the amount of cortical neurons than cats, meaning they may be able to analyze greater and more complex problems.
The famous and sometimes scary Boston Dynamics has an automated dog-type robot. The SpotMini, which should be entering into commercial production soon, is an advanced A.I. system. After a human operator pilots the dog around, it builds its own map of the space and can then autonomously navigate itself. The robot uses cameras on all four sides of its body and easily surpasses most cats and dogs in mobile ability, but as for thinking, your real-life pet still has the upper hand.
A.I. vs. humans
Search engines are some of are smartest A.I. competitors. A.I. isn’t smart enough to cook a simple meal without explicit direction, but one thing it excels at is the ability to parse massive amount of data and interpret our language in natural search.
In a research paper titled ‘Intelligence Quotient and Intelligence Grade of Artificial Intelligence’, scientists set out to rank the smartest A.I. search engines. They proposed a standard intelligence model that unifies A.I. and human characteristics into four areas of separate knowledge. Those being: input, output, mastery, and creation.
The smartest engines were ranked in the following order:
Based on their number ranking system, Google’s A.I. scored a 47.28. The average score for a human was around 96. Which means that in terms of their intelligence testing mechanism, Google search is as intelligent as a five year old.
Overall, we can say with confidence that no A.I is smarter than any animal currently living. We can simulate the conditions for life and these programs can learn overtime without human input, but they do not have survival drives that allow them to respond to the dynamic environment of life.
It’s a good idea to look at our current A.I. advancements in terms of silo intelligence. A master chess algorithm might be able to beat human grandmasters, but it won’t be able to wriggle around and to learn and evolve like a worm. So, for now, we can rest easy knowing that the humblest of the biosphere still beat out A.I. by a longshot.
What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
A new Gallup polls shows the rising support for socialism in the United States.
- Socialism is experiencing a boom in support among Americans.
- 43% of Americans now view socialism as "a good thing".
- There are also more people (51%) against socialism as political stances hardened.
A new study shows that some men's reaction to sex is not what you'd expect, resulting in a condition previously observed in women.
Is this proof of a dramatic shift?
- Map details dramatic shift from CNN to Fox News over 10-year period
- Does it show the triumph of "fake news" — or, rather, its defeat?
- A closer look at the map's legend allows for more complex analyses
Dramatic and misleading
Image: Reddit / SICResearch
The situation today: CNN pushed back to the edges of the country.
Over the course of no more than a decade, America has radically switched favorites when it comes to cable news networks. As this sequence of maps showing TMAs (Television Market Areas) suggests, CNN is out, Fox News is in.
The maps are certainly dramatic, but also a bit misleading. They nevertheless provide some insight into the state of journalism and the public's attitudes toward the press in the US.
Let's zoom in:
- It's 2008, on the eve of the Obama Era. CNN (blue) dominates the cable news landscape across America. Fox News (red) is an upstart (°1996) with a few regional bastions in the South.
- By 2010, Fox News has broken out of its southern heartland, colonizing markets in the Midwest and the Northwest — and even northern Maine and southern Alaska.
- Two years later, Fox News has lost those two outliers, but has filled up in the middle: it now boasts two large, contiguous blocks in the southeast and northwest, almost touching.
- In 2014, Fox News seems past its prime. The northwestern block has shrunk, the southeastern one has fragmented.
- Energised by Trump's 2016 presidential campaign, Fox News is back with a vengeance. Not only have Maine and Alaska gone from entirely blue to entirely red, so has most of the rest of the U.S. Fox News has plugged the Nebraska Gap: it's no longer possible to walk from coast to coast across CNN territory.
- By 2018, the fortunes from a decade earlier have almost reversed. Fox News rules the roost. CNN clings on to the Pacific Coast, New Mexico, Minnesota and parts of the Northeast — plus a smattering of metropolitan areas in the South and Midwest.
Image source: Reddit / SICResearch
This sequence of maps, showing America turning from blue to red, elicited strong reactions on the Reddit forum where it was published last week. For some, the takeover by Fox News illustrates the demise of all that's good and fair about news journalism. Among the comments?
- "The end is near."
- "The idiocracy grows."
- "(It's) like a spreading disease."
- "One of the more frightening maps I've seen."
- "LOL that's what happens when you're fake news!"
- "CNN went down the toilet on quality."
- "A Minecraft YouTuber could beat CNN's numbers."
- "CNN has become more like a high-school production of a news show."
Not a few find fault with both channels, even if not always to the same degree:
- "That anybody considers either of those networks good news sources is troubling."
- "Both leave you understanding less rather than more."
- "This is what happens when you spout bullsh-- for two years straight. People find an alternative — even if it's just different bullsh--."
- "CNN is sh-- but it's nowhere close to the outright bullsh-- and baseless propaganda Fox News spews."
"Old people learning to Google"
Image: Google Trends
CNN vs. Fox News search terms (200!-2018)
But what do the maps actually show? Created by SICResearch, they do show a huge evolution, but not of both cable news networks' audience size (i.e. Nielsen ratings). The dramatic shift is one in Google search trends. In other words, it shows how often people type in "CNN" or "Fox News" when surfing the web. And that does not necessarily reflect the relative popularity of both networks. As some commenters suggest:
- "I can't remember the last time that I've searched for a news channel on Google. Is it really that difficult for people to type 'cnn.com'?"
- "More than anything else, these maps show smart phone proliferation (among older people) more than anything else."
- "This is a map of how old people and rural areas have learned to use Google in the last decade."
- "This is basically a map of people who don't understand how the internet works, and it's no surprise that it leans conservative."
A visual image as strong as this map sequence looks designed to elicit a vehement response — and its lack of context offers viewers little new information to challenge their preconceptions. Like the news itself, cartography pretends to be objective, but always has an agenda of its own, even if just by the selection of its topics.
The trick is not to despair of maps (or news) but to get a good sense of the parameters that are in play. And, as is often the case (with both maps and news), what's left out is at least as significant as what's actually shown.
One important point: while Fox News is the sole major purveyor of news and opinion with a conservative/right-wing slant, CNN has more competition in the center/left part of the spectrum, notably from MSNBC.
Another: the average age of cable news viewers — whether they watch CNN or Fox News — is in the mid-60s. As a result of a shift in generational habits, TV viewing is down across the board. Younger people are more comfortable with a "cafeteria" approach to their news menu, selecting alternative and online sources for their information.
It should also be noted, however, that Fox News, according to Harvard's Nieman Lab, dominates Facebook when it comes to engagement among news outlets.
CNN, Fox and MSNBC
Image: Google Trends
CNN vs. Fox (without the 'News'; may include searches for actual foxes). See MSNBC (in yellow) for comparison
For the record, here are the Nielsen ratings for average daily viewer total for the three main cable news networks, for 2018 (compared to 2017):
- Fox News: 1,425,000 (-5%)
- MSNBC: 994,000 (+12%)
- CNN: 706,000 (-9%)
And according to this recent overview, the top 50 of the most popular websites in the U.S. includes cnn.com in 28th place, and foxnews.com in... 27th place.The top 5, in descending order, consists of google.com, youtube.com, facebook.com, amazon.com and yahoo.com — the latter being the highest-placed website in the News and Media category.
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