Downton Abbey film director Michael Engler – the best idea in the room

Fears and discoveries in translating an intimate world to the big screen. How experience helps you deal with people yelling at you. Why 21st century audiences love to be transported to Edwardian England, in spite of all the class hierarchy…


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Become an intellectual explorer: Master the art of conversation

Want to be smarter than you were yesterday? Learn to have better conversations using these 3 design principles.

Sponsored by the Institute for Humane Studies
  • What is a great conversation? They are the ones that leave us feeling smarter or more curious, with a sense that we have discovered something, understood something about another person, or have been challenged.
  • There are 3 design principles that lead to great conversations: humility, critical thinking, and sympathetic listening.
  • Critical thinking is the celebrated cornerstone of liberalism, but next time you're in a challenging and rewarding conversation, try to engage sympathetic listening too. Understanding why another intelligent person holds ideas that are at odds with your own is often more enlightening than merely hunting for logic errors.
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Whether it's hitting up SoulCycle or taking a run in the park, exercise is key to stress management, good sleep, happiness, productivity — and above all, health.

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Sponsored by the Institute for Humane Studies
  • For society to stay open and free, you don't need to eliminate prejudice. You need the opposite: All kinds of prejudice pitted against each other.
  • Intellectual diversity helps society as a whole learn the truth. And as long as society has rules that force ideas to be openly tested, the intolerant will not gain the upper hand.
  • "In America it's legal to be intolerant. It may not be right. It may not get you accepted or respected. But absolutely it's legal and it should be legal," says Jonathan Rauch.
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Learn the art of conversation, with comedian Pete Holmes

We have a new range of skills coming to Big Think Edge this week, including communication, critical thinking, and emotional intelligence.

  • At Big Think Edge this week, we delve into ways you can make your conversations sing. So to speak.
  • Learn a valuable lesson about psychopaths, from diagnosed psychopath (and neuroscientsit) James Fallon.
  • If you're not a subscriber yet, join Big Think Edge today. Boost your skills with our 7-day free trial.
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Why overeating is an ecological nightmare

A new research article states that the obesity epidemic is affecting more than just waistlines.

Photo: Getty Images
Surprising Science
  • While the cost of food waste is high, the environmental impact of obesity is even higher.
  • According to researchers in Italy, obesity results in an extra 140 billion tons of food consumption every year.
  • Obesity costs Americans $1.72 trillion in healthcare costs and is now the leading cause of death.
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High-fat diets change your brain, not just your body

Unhealthy diets cause the part of your brain responsible for appetite to become inflamed, encouraging further eating and obesity.

Photo by Miguel Andrade on Unsplash
Mind & Brain
  • Anyone who has tried to change their diet can tell you it's not as simple as simply waking up and deciding to eat differently.
  • New research sheds light on a possible explanation for this; high-fat diets can cause inflammation in the hypothalamus, which regulates hunger.
  • Mice fed high-fat diets tended to eat more and become obese due to this inflammation.

Your wardrobe won't be the only thing a bad diet will change in your life — new research published in Cell Metabolism shows that high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets physically change your brain and, correspondingly, your behavior. Anyone who has tried to change their diet can tell you that it's far more challenging than simply deciding to change. It could be because of the impact high-fat diets have on the hypothalamus.

Yale researcher Sabrina Diano and colleagues fed mice a high-fat, high-carb diet and found that the animals' hypothalamuses quickly became inflamed. This small portion of the brain release hormones that regulate many autonomic processes, including hunger. It appears that high-fat, high-carb diets create a vicious cycle, as this inflammation caused the mice to eat more and gain more weight.

"There are specific brain mechanisms that get activated when we expose ourselves to specific type of foods," said Diano in a Yale press release. "This is a mechanism that may be important from an evolutionary point of view. However, when food rich in fat and carbs is constantly available it is detrimental."

A burger and a side of fries for mice

Chicken Nuggets

Photo by Miguel Andrade on Unsplash

The main driver of this inflammation appeared to be how high-fat diets changed the mice's microglial cells. Along with other glial cells, microglia are a kind of cell found in the central nervous system (CNS), although they aren't neurons. Instead, they play a supporting role in the brain, providing structure, supplying nutrients, insulating neurons, and destroying pathogens. Microglia work as part of the CNS's immune system, seeking out and destroying foreign bodies as well as plaques and damaged neurons or synapses.

In just three days after being fed a high-fat diet, the mice's microglia activated, causing inflammation in the hypothalamus. As a result, the mice started to eat more and became obese. "We were intrigued by the fact that these are very fast changes that occur even before the body weight changes, and we wanted to understand the underlying cellular mechanism," said Diano.

In mice fed with a high-fat diet, the researchers found that the mitochondria of the microglia had shrunk. They suspected that a specific protein called Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) was the likely culprit for this change, since it helps to regulate the amount of energy microglia use and tends to be highly expressed on activated microglia.

To test whether UCP2 was behind the hypothalamus inflammation, the researchers deleted the gene responsible for producing that protein in a group of mice. Then, they fed those mice the same high-fat diet. This time, however, the mice's microglia did not activate. As a result, they ate significantly less food and did not become obese.

An out-of-date adaptation

When human beings did not have reliable access to food, this kind of behavioral change would have been beneficial. If an ancient human stumbled across a high-fat, calorically dense meal, it would make sense for that individual to eat as much as they could, not knowing where it's next meal would come from.

But there were no Burger Kings during the Pleistocene. Humanity has been extraordinarily successful in changing its environment, but our genome has yet to catch up. The wide availability of food, and especially high-fat foods, means that this adaptation is no longer a benefit for us.

If anything, research such as this underscores how difficult it is to really change bad habits. A poor diet isn't a moral failing — it's a behavioral demand. Fortunately, the same big brains that gave us this abundance of food can also exert control over our behavior, even if those brains seem to be working against us.

Etgar Keret (writer) – a tunnel dug under the prison floor

Etgar Keret's stories are as funny, painful, and surreal as life itself. We talk about the craziness of his native Israel, his new collection of short stories FLY ALREADY, marijuana, dementia, and much more.

Think Again Podcasts


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