The Loch Ness Monster: Science, myth, and DNA

Is Nessie real or just a tourism ploy? There might be more to this (in)famous monster than you think...

Up in the Scottish Highlands lies one of the largest lakes in the British Isles. The locale itself is a magnificent sight to behold. Loch Ness is a place that has become synonymous with the name Loch Ness Monster – for the supposed monster sightings of “Nessie” in the lake and surrounding areas over the years. Geologically speaking it’s unique as well for its large depth relative to its overall size. Loch Ness is a deep freshwater lake that stretches down an average depth of 433 ft with a max depth reaching 744.6 ft.

Looking out from the shoreline from the Urquhart Castle on the banks of the loch, the water shimmers and stretches out to the rolling hills. There is a lot of history here with the added natural splendor of the surrounding area. Lost in the beauty alone, Loch Ness is an exemplary setting to see.

But despite this beauty, the prospect of the Loch Ness Monster holds people's’ interests. The Loch Ness monster is a cryptid, a hidden animal, which joins the likes of dragons, yetis, and bigfoot. Sightings have littered the historical record, many of these being debunked or outright hoaxes. Photographs and video evidence have ranged from mistaken pieces of driftwood to zoomed in pictures of otters and birds. Yet even with this mounting evidence that nothing is there – or that what’s there is being mistaken for something else, many people locally and worldwide still believe in the Loch Ness Monster.

The Loch Ness today, Creative Commons. 

Loch Ness Monster sightings in 1933 and beyond

The emergence of the legend into the cultural consciousness came to us on May 2, 1933, in a local newspaper. The Inverness Courier relayed an account from a couple who claimed to have seen “an enormous animal rolling and plunging on the surface.” At the time this had become a media sensation. London newspapers sent their correspondents to Scotland and a circus even offered a 20,000-pound sterling reward for the capture of this newly named monster.   

Throughout the years interest began to grow and others began to claim they’d seen the animal on land. For decades, amateurs have set up camp and sent expeditions into the lake. Some universities even launched sonar investigations into the water, where they sometimes detected moving underwater objects. In 1975 a combined sonar and underwater photo appeared, that when enhanced showed a flipper of an aquatic animal – otters are known to live in and around the lake. It wasn’t until the late 20th century that an early photo famously referred to as the “The Surgeon’s Photo” taken in 1934, was debunked. A highly respected surgeon named Colonel Robert Wilson came forward with a photo that looked like a sea serpent in the Loch.    

The original story goes that Wilson took the photograph in the morning on April 19, 1934. He was driving on the northern shore of the Loch and noticed something moving in the water. For years this photograph was considered the best evidence that there was some kind of sea monster living in Loch Ness.

While skeptics and investigators throughout the years believed that this picture was a hoax. They were proven right when Christian Spurling confessed to staging the photo in 1994. The plot involved Marmaduke Wetherell and Colonel Wilson, the former who had lost face when he’d investigated footprints of a large animal along the Loch,  and it had turned out to be hippo’s feet, which shattered his credibility. Thus the strongest evidence and cornerstone of the sighting conspiracy was debunked many years ago. But for some reason, the Loch Ness Monster and its haphazard sightings still persist.

Loch Ness crossing signs, Loch Ness, Scotland. Creative Commons. 

DNA analysis and genuine believers

A Scottish government wing has an actual plan if the Loch Ness Monster is ever discovered. The Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) prepared a plan in 2001, in which they stated was "partly serious, partly fun,” this code of practice was drawn up in the event that a new species was discovered in the Loch. It states that if a DNA sample is taken of the creature it should be released back into the loch afterward.

In recent times, there has been renewed interest in Loch Ness after a group of scientists set out to find out what’s in the lake by using something called environmental DNA or eDNA. An international research team led by University of Otago geneticist Neil Gemmell began collecting water samples from the loch in April of 2018. By sequencing DNA fragments they can find what type of species are in Loch Ness.   

Environmental DNA is a powerful tool for researchers because they can get a genetic footprint of an entire ecosystem all at once. Helen Taylor who is on the team with Gemmell said of the process:   “Imagine being able to take soil or water samples from an ecosystem and catalog every species living in that ecosystem. No more invasive sampling or taking whole organisms back to the lab to ID them under a microscope.” 

In years past and with the eDNA analysis underway, there has been some real scientific experimentation going on in Loch Ness. Many of Gemmell's team remain skeptical about the Loch Ness, but are happy to have an opportunity to test out cutting-edge practices like eDNA.

But for the general public, this paints a discordant picture of Loch Ness and makes a mess out of sifting through what’s myth and what’s real here. No more is this evident than in Scotland’s first minister saying that she believes there is a monster. Who also was maybe joking?

It’s also difficult to determine how this type of pervasive uncritical thinking could be leading to other types of nonsensical beliefs.  

There are a reported 400,000 people who visit Loch Ness on an annual basis. On average there are around 10 reports of an unexplained sighting in the waters. People have been seeing many different things for years in those waters.  

Wikimedia Commons   

Science coming in with the logical takedown

One of the best takedowns of the mere plausibility of a monster existing in Loch Ness comes from authors Daniel Loxton and Donald R. Prothero, who in their book, Origins of the Yeti, Nessie, and Other Famous Cryptids offer a detailed debunking of many different mythological animals that still persist in contemporary culture.

The monster has been described as a giant dinosaur-like creature that lives in the lake. In order for that to be true, we need a lot of concise evidence. Not a bunch of hyped sightings and blurry photos over a few hundred years time. These accounts have remained unreliable and will most likely continue to be so over the years. This objection is just one problem with the whole sighting endeavor. The bigger issue that author Donald R. Prothero says “is that the biological, geological, and physical evidence is against the thing existing."

Many cryptozoologists state that Nessie could be a surviving plesiosaur, which is a marine reptile that lived in lakes some 65 million years ago. Overall, here are some of the main issues with this prevailing hypothesis:

  • There have never been any plesiosaur bones found in Loch Ness.

  • The water is too cold for a reptile to live in.

  • Loch Ness is too small for a group of monsters to be living in and breeding.

  • Any lone monster would most definitely go against our current scientific understanding of species.

A whole lot of people visit Loch Ness and the economic value is worth some £25m. So while it’s profitable to keep up the Loch Ness Monster myth, it isn’t real. Whether people want to believe this or not only time will tell. We can imagine the Loch Ness continuing to tell tall tales with more blurry photos in its wake.

Drill, Baby, Drill: What will we look for when we mine on Mars?

It's unlikely that there's anything on the planet that is worth the cost of shipping it back

Surprising Science
  • In the second season of National Geographic Channel's MARS (premiering tonight, 11/12/18,) privatized miners on the red planet clash with a colony of international scientists
  • Privatized mining on both Mars and the Moon is likely to occur in the next century
  • The cost of returning mined materials from Space to the Earth will probably be too high to create a self-sustaining industry, but the resources may have other uses at their origin points

Want to go to Mars? It will cost you. In 2016, SpaceX founder Elon Musk estimated that manned missions to the planet may cost approximately $10 billion per person. As with any expensive endeavor, it is inevitable that sufficient returns on investment will be needed in order to sustain human presence on Mars. So, what's underneath all that red dust?

Mining Technology reported in 2017 that "there are areas [on Mars], especially large igneous provinces, volcanoes and impact craters that hold significant potential for nickel, copper, iron, titanium, platinum group elements and more."

Were a SpaceX-like company to establish a commercial mining presence on the planet, digging up these materials will be sure to provoke a fraught debate over environmental preservation in space, Martian land rights, and the slew of microbial unknowns which Martian soil may bring.

In National Geographic Channel's genre-bending narrative-docuseries, MARS, (the second season premieres tonight, November 12th, 9 pm ET / 8 pm CT) this dynamic is explored as astronauts from an international scientific coalition go head-to-head with industrial miners looking to exploit the planet's resources.

Given the rate of consumption of minerals on Earth, there is plenty of reason to believe that there will be demand for such an operation.

"Almost all of the easily mined gold, silver, copper, tin, zinc, antimony, and phosphorus we can mine on Earth may be gone within one hundred years" writes Stephen Petranek, author of How We'll Live on Mars, which Nat Geo's MARS is based on. That grim scenario will require either a massive rethinking of how we consume metals on earth, or supplementation from another source.

Elon Musk, founder of SpaceX, told Petranek that it's unlikely that even if all of Earth's metals were exhausted, it is unlikely that Martian materials could become an economically feasible supplement due to the high cost of fuel required to return the materials to Earth. "Anything transported with atoms would have to be incredibly valuable on a weight basis."

Actually, we've already done some of this kind of resource extraction. During NASA's Apollo missions to the Moon, astronauts used simple steel tools to collect about 842 pounds of moon rocks over six missions. Due to the high cost of those missions, the Moon rocks are now highly valuable on Earth.

Moon rock on display at US Space and Rocket Center, Huntsville, AL (Big Think/Matt Carlstrom)

In 1973, NASA valuated moon rocks at $50,800 per gram –– or over $300,000 today when adjusted for inflation. That figure doesn't reflect the value of the natural resources within the rock, but rather the cost of their extraction.

Assuming that Martian mining would be done with the purpose of bringing materials back to Earth, the cost of any materials mined from Mars would need to include both the cost of the extraction and the value of the materials themselves. Factoring in the price of fuel and the difficulties of returning a Martian lander to Earth, this figure may be entirely cost prohibitive.

What seems more likely, says Musk, is for the Martian resources to stay on the Red Planet to be used for construction and manufacturing within manned colonies, or to be used to support further mining missions of the mineral-rich asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

At the very least, mining on Mars has already produced great entertainment value on Earth: tune into Season 2 of MARS on National Geographic Channel.

For thousands of years, humans slept in two shifts. Should we do it again?

Researchers believe that the practice of sleeping through the whole night didn’t really take hold until just a few hundred years ago.

The Bed by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
Surprising Science

She was wide awake and it was nearly two in the morning. When asked if everything was alright, she said, “Yes.” Asked why she couldn’t get to sleep she said, “I don’t know.” Neuroscientist Russell Foster of Oxford might suggest she was exhibiting “a throwback to the bi-modal sleep pattern." Research suggests we used to sleep in two segments with a period of wakefulness in-between.

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Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to good health and well-being

Antimicrobial resistance is growing worldwide, rendering many "work horse" medicines ineffective. Without intervention, drug-resistant pathogens could lead to millions of deaths by 2050. Thankfully, companies like Pfizer are taking action.

Image courtesy of Pfizer.
  • Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens are one of the largest threats to global health today.
  • As we get older, our immune systems age, increasing our risk of life threatening infections. Without reliable antibiotics, life expectancy could decline for the first time in modern history.
  • If antibiotics become ineffective, common infections could result in hospitalization or even death. Life-saving interventions like cancer treatments and organ transplantation would become more difficult, more often resulting in death. Routine procedures would become hard to perform.
  • Without intervention, resistant pathogens could result in 10 million annual deaths by 2050.
  • By taking a multi-faceted approach—inclusive of adherence to good stewardship, surveillance and responsible manufacturing practices, as well as an emphasis on prevention and treatment—companies like Pfizer are fighting to help curb the spread.
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