from the world's big
Astronomers spot periodic lights coming from near the black hole at the center of our galaxy.
- Astronomers in Japan observe periodic lights coming from the region near the black hole at the center of our galaxy.
- The twinkling may be produced by hot spots in the accretion disk around the black hole.
- The mysterious region studied features extreme gravity.
Michio Kaku: A Black Hole in Our Own Backyard<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="9LfqUfA6" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="629fe1f106ae179ccabcf1667d201e9b"> <div id="botr_9LfqUfA6_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/9LfqUfA6-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/9LfqUfA6-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/9LfqUfA6-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Japanese physicists devise technology to discover axion dark matter.
- Physicists from the University of Tokyo plan to use lasers to discover axions.
- Axions are theoretical particles that may be components of dark matter.
- Dark matter is a mysterious substance that may compose up to 27% of the universe.
The proposed instrument that would hunt for axion dark matter.
Credit: 2019 Nagano et al | University of Tokyo Institute for Cosmic Ray Research
During World War II, the U.S. incarcerated over 100,000 Japanese Americans in concentration camps throughout the West.
- Now that the issue of concentration camps in the U.S. has once again reared its head, it can be beneficial to recall the last time such camps were employed in the U.S.
- After Pearl Harbor, the U.S. incarcerated over 100,000 Japanese Americans in camps, ostensibly for national security purposes.
- In truth, the incarceration was primarily motivated by racism. What was life like in the U.S.'s concentration camps?
On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which authorized and directed military commanders "to prescribe military areas … from which any or all persons may be excluded, and with respect to which, the right of any person to enter, remain in, or leave shall be subject to whatever restrictions the Secretary of War or the appropriate Military Commander may impose in his discretion." Under the authority of this executive order, roughly 112,000 men, women, and children of Japanese descent — nearly two-thirds of which were American citizens — were detained in concentration camps.
How did the camps get their start?
With the benefit of a nearly 80-year perspective, it's clear that the internment of Japanese Americans was racially motivated. In response to Japan's growing military power in the buildup to World War II, President Roosevelt commissioned two reports to determine whether it would be necessary to intern Japanese Americans should conflict break out between Japan and the U.S. Neither's conclusions supported the plan, with one even going so far as to "certify a remarkable, even extraordinary degree of loyalty among this generally suspect ethnic group." But of course, the Pearl Harbor attacks proved to be far more persuasive than these reports.
Pearl Harbor turned simmering resentment against the Japanese to a full boil, putting pressure on the Roosevelt administration to intern Japanese Americans. Lieutenant General John DeWitt, who would become the administrator of the internment program, testified to Congress
"I don't want any of them here. They are a dangerous element. There is no way to determine their loyalty... It makes no difference whether he is an American citizen, he is still a Japanese. American citizenship does not necessarily determine loyalty... But we must worry about the Japanese all the time until he is wiped off the map."
DeWitt's position was backed up by a number of pre-existing anti-immigrant groups based out of the West Coast, such as the Joint Immigration Committee and the Native Sons and Daughters of the Golden West. For many, the war simply served as an excuse to get rid of Japanese Americans. In an interview with the Saturday Evening Post, Austin Anson, the managing secretary of the Salinas Vegetable Grower-Shipper Administration, said:
"We're charged with wanting to get rid of the Japs for selfish reasons. We do. It's a question of whether the White man lives on the Pacific Coast or the brown men. ... If all the Japs were removed tomorrow, we'd never miss them in two weeks because the White farmers can take over and produce everything the Jap grows. And we do not want them back when the war ends, either."
Ironically for Anson, the mass deportation of Japanese Americans under Executive Order 9066 meant there was a significant shortage of agricultural labor. Many Caucasians left to fight the war, so the U.S. signed an agreement with Mexico to permit the immigration of several million Mexicans agricultural workers under the so-called bracero program.
Life in the camps
Circa 1943: Aerial view of a Japanese American relocation center in Amache, Colorado, during World War II. Each family was provided with a space 20 by 25 ft. The barracks were set in blocks and each block was provided with a community bath house and mess hall.
Hulton Archive/Getty Images
For the most part, Japanese Americans remained stoic in the face of their incarceration. The phrase shikata ga nai was frequently invoked — the phrase roughly translates to "it cannot be helped," which, for many, represents the perceived attitude of the Japanese people to withstand suffering that's out of their control.
Initially, most Japanese Americans were sent to temporary assembly centers, typically located at fairgrounds or racetracks. These were hastily constructed barracks, where prisoners were often packed into tight quarters and made to use toilets that were little more than pits in the ground. From here, they were relocated to more permanent camps — replete with barbed wire and armed guards — in remote, isolated places across the seven states of California, Arizona, Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, and Arkansas.
Many of these camps, also known as War Relocation Centers, were little better than the temporary assembly centers. One report described the buildings as "tar paper-covered barracks of simple frame construction without plumbing or cooking facilities of any kind." Again, overcrowding was common.
As a result, disease became a major concern, including dysentery, malaria, and tuberculosis. This was problematic due to the chronic shortage of medical professionals and supplies, an issue that was not helped by the War Relocation Authority's decision to cap Japanese American medical professional's pay at $20 a month (about $315 in 2019 dollars), while Caucasian workers had no such restriction. As a comparison, Caucasian nurses earned $150 ($2,361) a month in one camp.
The U.S. government also administered loyalty questionnaires to incarcerated Japanese Americans with the ultimate goal of seeing whether they could be used as soldiers and to segregate "loyal" citizens from "disloyal" ones. The questionnaires often asked whether they would be willing to join the military and if they would completely renounce their loyalty to Japan. Due to fears of being drafted, general confusion, and justified anger at the U.S. government, thousands of Japanese Americans "failed" the loyalty questionnaire and were sent to the concentration camp at Tule Lake. When Roosevelt later signed a bill that would permit Japanese Americans to renounce their citizenship, 98 percent of the 5,589 who did were located at Tule Lake. Some apologists cite this an example of genuine disloyalty towards the U.S., but this argument clearly ignores the gross violation of Japanese Americans' rights. Later, it became clear that many of these renunciations had been made under duress, and nearly all of those who had renounced their citizenship sought to gain it back.
Since many children lived in the camps, they came equipped with schools. Of course, these schools weren't ideal — student-teacher ratios reached as high as 48:1, and supplies were limited. The irony of learning about American history and ideals was not lost on the students, one of whom wrote in an essay --
"They, the first generation [of Japanese immigrants], without the least knowledge of the English language nor the new surroundings, came to this land with the American pioneering spirit of resettling. ...Though undergoing many hardships, they did reach their goal only to be resettled by the order of evacuation under the emergency for our protection and public security."
Potentially the best part of life in the camps — and the best way for determined prisoners to demonstrate their fundamental American-ness — was playing baseball. One camp even featured nearly 100 baseball teams. Former prisoner Herb Kurima recalled the importance of baseball in their lives in an interview with Christian Science Monitor. "I wanted our fathers, who worked so hard, to have a chance to see a ball game," he said. "Over half the camp used to come out to watch. It was the only enjoyment in the camps."
When the camps finally closed in 1945, the lives of the incarcerated Japanese Americans had been totally upended. Some were repatriated to Japan, while others settled in whichever part of the country they had been arbitrarily placed in. Those who wished to return to the West Coast were given $25 and a train ticket, but few had anything to return to. Many had sold their property to predatory buyers prior to being incarcerated, while theft had wiped out whatever else they had left behind. Many, many years later, the 1988 Civil Liberties Act mandated that each surviving victim be paid $20,000, though that seems like a small fine to pay for irrevocably changing the courses of more than 100,000 lives.
Some of the world's most prestigious universities aren't in America.
- China's Tsinghua and Peking University are on par with Harvard and MIT.
- These 10 universities consistently shuffle around for top tier status in Asian college rankings.
- Universities in Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and China have churned out dozens of Nobel Laureates and other renowned figures.
Tsinghua University<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTYzNDY5Ni9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0Nzk2Mzg0NH0.GiCyvWDr-UBlWW6oVg2T2R_z8xA2VEXEt7qxTL6mrNs/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=34%2C116%2C114%2C73&height=700" id="20f22" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="1b4926e0fbe8ad386f2dc0952b46d66c" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>Tsinghua University is one of the most prestigious institutions in China. Leading a rigorous multidisciplinary system for the past three decades, it has gone through many iterations and changes since its creation in 1911.</p><p>Known as one of the most elite schools in China, and referred to some as the "MIT of China," the school prides itself on its strength in engineering and the sciences. Admitted students must have excellent scores on their national exams. Tsinghua consistently ranks in the top 30 of <a href="https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings" target="_blank">The World University Rankings.</a></p><p>The campus is located in northwest Beijing alongside other colleges inside of a designated university hub. Built on the former Qing Dynasty royal gardens, the campus has a remarkably beautiful synthesis of ancient Chinese and Western architecture. Two Nobel Prize winners have either went to or worked for the university. Many graduates go on to become influential in Chinese politics.</p>
Peking University<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTYzMzA1OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0MzY5NzM3OH0.OUs8EXYuAsBNHPyZMhNiWOC9q_ZlRhQx3P2jQ2dCds4/img.jpg?width=980" id="16386" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="36118e05981131daea4d60093fd4e4be" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>Peking University is considered to be the first national university in China, having been founded in the late 19th century. Dubbed the "Harvard of China," it is a major cultural hub and center of China's humanities.</p><p>Peking also sits on former Qing Dynasty imperial gardens. Over 2,000 international students attend the university every year. It is well known for having one of the largest libraries in all of Asia, with over 11 million books and other printed resources in its massive library. Three Nobel prize winners have been associated with the university.</p>
National University of Singapore<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTYzMzA2MC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxNzQ3NzMwOX0.ugg6N7aKjc0X-ZHwu_X59a9dwYvUZBbNk3LT3MXXPTg/img.jpg?width=980" id="5aaf0" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="ef3ec96611ae28f238118d482b5d6256" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>The National University of Singapore or (NUS) is the oldest university in the country and has the greatest amount of students, too. While it is an outstanding school for engineering and technology, it also has a dedicated center for innovation and entrepreneurship in the tech field. This "technopreneurship" focus has been around for the past 30 years.</p><p>The university has a flexible degree granting system — the students have the ability to transfer between departments and different faculties early on to facilitate a more robust, cross-disciplinary education rather than focusing too much on one subfield. </p><p>Their four "Research Centres of Excellence" focus on quantum technologies, cancer research, mechanobiology, and environmental life sciences. They have an impressive list of alumni that include four Singaporean prime ministers and presidents and two Malaysian prime ministers.</p>
University of Tokyo<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTYzMzA2MS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyOTE0Nzg1OH0.JHntgB1IQhqcIPgyHTlp6RrVMim-nswkY5wEsgcdUEQ/img.jpg?width=980" id="b6ce0" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="479447a911739987524ad4f8663feb41" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>University of Tokyo is the first national university of Japan established in 1877. Spread between three campuses between Hongo, Komaba, and Kashiwa, the University of Tokyo has a number of facilities throughout the metropolitan area. </p><p>The university has a unique course structure, where students embark first on a two year liberal arts education at one campus before transferring to another location to finish their intended major. From a previous ranking by the Professional Ranking of World Universities, the University of Tokyo ranked second behind Harvard University in having the most number of alumni having CEO positions in Fortune 500 companies. </p><p>One of their campuses (Shirokane) has one of the largest supercomputers in the field that is focused on genome research.</p>
Seoul National University<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTYzMzA3OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxNjg3NDE1M30.NQpGaUUizBW6eVxG5Ri-B_kzQ-Uj4sC5zuAPtZAGpvQ/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C29%2C0%2C64&height=700" id="4b94d" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="d130632aa302865bca45bce23c9bde99" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>Originally founded by the Japanese empire in the 1940s, the Japanese imperial college standing was eventually abolished and merged into the university with a number of other nearby institutions. </p><p>Seoul National University consistently ranks globally and in the top universities in Asia. It is situated in the heart of South Korea's capital city. The main campus, Gwanak has over 200 buildings for all of its students and staff and even comes with its own subway station. </p><p>There are a number of famous alumni and international political figures that include the former UN secretary-general Ban Ki-Moon, Song Sang-hyun former president of the International Criminal Court and Lee Jong-wook, former head of the World Health Organization.</p>
University of Hong Kong<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTYzMzA3OC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzMjA1MDg4Nn0.eXHvtPoQb6dpVOevHSkP91Iw0re-nKn3SA2JIfKsLPI/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C0%2C0%2C124&height=700" id="2aee2" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="be96f9aa8ca14117da480b2003ad036c" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>Founded by a British governor in 1911, the University of Hong Kong (HKU) was originally a prominently English-based university. In 1927 it began to integrate within the surrounding Chinese culture and begin offering courses and degrees in Chinese. Their main building was built in 1912 and is considered a national monument, alongside it are a number of other British colonial architecture buildings.</p><p>As a very selective school, it's a highly sought out after place for students from mainland China. All students are required to be proficient in both English and Chinese language courses. Many HKU graduates go on to become Chinese politicians and hold positions of power in private industry. </p>
Duke Kunshan University<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTYzMzA2NS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxMjIzODI1M30.KGWwvT1YSYf2uWeVoK0dpQNvH3h9K-DOp_lI7bhosIQ/img.jpg?width=980" id="cd5cd" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="dfdacb34d7f23560b0287de5e6003cea" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>Duke Kunshan University sets itself apart from the other top asian schools on this list, as it is relatively new — it was founded in 2013. The university is an international partnership between Duke University and Wuhan University. This said, it offers a wide range of world-class academic programs for Chinese and international students. </p><p>Duke Kunshan is based in Kunshan, Jiangsu province, China. Situated on a 200 acre area, the entire campus is decidedly modern and in close proximity to Shanghai by means of a high-speed rail. The city of Kunshan has become a leading hub of high tech research and manufacturing in China. It also considered to be one of the fastest areas of growth in all of China. </p><p>Their Global Health Research Center has been established with the Duke Global Health Institute, in order to address health issues endemic to China and the region. Many of its research programs are centered around the Chinese population and the health problems they face, such as chronic disease and environmental health.</p>
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTYzMzA2Ni9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTU5NTY1Mjk1N30.pSNlTaWkPQzlVjUxbtNIg9YaosUJuykGu9h2VmU7isg/img.jpg?width=980" id="ff402" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="56ba1975d82914cb8f5e7f38b211d5f2" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>Another prestigious university in Hong Kong, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology was created in 1991. Their main focus is on science, technology and engineering. The campus is based in the Northern part of the Sai Kung district and is built out of terraces carved in the hillside.</p><p>Their Lee Shau Kee Library is known for containing one of the largest collections of maps of China and Asia — they were produced by cartographers over the past 500 years. Alongside many other prestigious Asian universities on this list, HKUST has previously ranked as a top university of all of Asia. A recent Global University Employability Ranking, found that graduates have some of the highest employment rates in all of Greater China within the past five years.</p>
Kyoto University<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTYzMzA3Ni9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNjY0NjQ4OH0.H3lhIC_gjysO7Jur4KIJrMPaZesMbmFbciw7pmr-QcQ/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C26%2C0%2C26&height=700" id="8338a" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="ccec868e5264d16ab5de4ab2ed3e4ab4" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>Kyoto University is the second oldest Japanese university and one of Japan's National Seven Universities. Its campus is spread between three campuses residing in Yoshida, Uji, and Katsura. Founded in 1897 and originally known as the Kyoto Imperial University, the institution received its new name in 1947.</p><p>It has a number of notable research facilities, such as the Yukawa Institute for theoretical physics, which has produced many Nobel Laureates — 10 to be exact. While predominantly a Japanese institution, the university offers a 15-week program at the Education Center for Japanese Language and Culture for international researchers that want to learn and study the language.</p>
Pohang University of Science and Technology<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTYzMzA3My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0ODgzMDY0MX0.1SwLLDXcjC_WT-m9X4xsaPdMpb7Y9XqIHd46uLXHtwU/img.png?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C10%2C0%2C11&height=700" id="cb93d" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="92f585ef056f7091c33ff6955d5981ff" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>Another great university to come out of South Korea, established in 1986 the Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) is a leading research facility with tight ties to the technological industry. It has a bilingual campus, making it a popular university in both South Korea and the world.</p><p>A privately-run institution, POSTECH is a great school for international English students as more than 85 percent of the classes that count for credit are conducted in English. With a small enrollment and research centered approach, the university attracts a number of top students from all over the world. </p>
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Japanese researchers carry out quantum teleportation within a diamond.
- Scientists figure out how to teleport information within a diamond.
- The study took advantage of defects in the diamond's structure.
- The achievement has implications for quantum computing.
The diamond's lattice structure features a nitrogen-vacancy center with surrounding carbons. In this image, the carbon isotope (green) is initially entangled with an electron (blue) in the vacancy. It then waits for a photon (red) to be absorbed. This results in quantum teleportation-based state transfer of the photon into the carbon memory.
Credit: Yokohama National University