Archaeologists solve the enigma of Ice Age mammoth bone circles

Strange bone circles made from mammoths revealed clues about how ancient communities survived Europe's last ice age.

Credit: Alex Pryor
  • Archaeologists found new clues to the purpose of the bone circles in Russia and Ukraine from the last Ice Age.
  • The previous theories assumed they were used for dwellings.
  • The new finds indicate they were used partially for fuel and had remains of different plants.
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Secret bunker from WWII found in Scotland

Winston Churchill had a secret army, and bunkers like this would have hidden them during a German invasion.

Image: © FLS/AOC Archaeology
  • Scottish foresters have recently stumbled on a hidden bunker dating back to WWII.
  • It is one of hundreds of bunkers designed to hide a secret guerrilla army in the event of a German invasion.
  • For the sake of protecting the site, its precise location will not be made public.
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How does the rule of law promote a free society?

In classical liberal philosophy, individual pursuit of happiness is made possible by a framework of law.

  • The rule of law as a principle has a philosophical history before it was popularized by classical liberalism, which can be traced back to Greek philosopher Aristotle.
  • The classical liberal conception of laws draws upon this pre-history but differs slightly. Yes, the end goal is the common good, however "goodness" varies by individual.
  • In this way of thinking, instead of telling us what will make us happy, law serves as the framework that allows us to pursue our own unique happiness.
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Plato and Hobbes: Two bad metaphors for society—and a better one

Understanding society as an ever-changing archipelago, rather than as a fixed, closed structure.

  • Chandran Kukathas, Lee Kong Chian Chair in Political Science, considers Plato and Hobbes' metaphors of society as a ship and a body, respectively.
  • The metaphors for society from classical philosophy frame it as a closed structure. Kukathas argues that because boundaries are fluid and ever changing, and because people move in and out of them, the metaphor should be one of an archipelago.
  • The islands that form an archipelago come into and go out of existence according to various factors and natural circumstances. For Kukathas, this model of society favors "norms of toleration" over "norms of justice" and leaves room for debate and disagreements about what's right or wrong.
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Mathematical model shows how the Nazis could have won WWII's Battle of Britain

With just a few strategical tweaks, the Nazis could have won one of World War II's most decisive battles.

Photo: Heinrich Hoffmann/ullstein bild via Getty Images
  • The Battle of Britain is widely recognized as one of the most significant battles that occurred during World War II. It marked the first major victory of the Allied forces and shifted the tide of the war.
  • Historians, however, have long debated the deciding factor in the British victory and German defeat.
  • A new mathematical model took into account numerous alternative tactics that the German's could have made and found that just two tweaks stood between them and victory over Britain.
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