We can't ask them, so scientists have devised an experiment.
- Humans have the capacity for conscious awareness of our visual world.
- While all sighted animals respond to visual stimuli, we don't know if any of them consciously take note of what they're seeing in the way that we do.
- Researchers from Yale have devised experiments that suggest that rhesus monkeys share this ability.
Scientists observe how the halves of the brain keep us informed about everything everywhere.
Two sides of the big picture<img class="rm-lazyloadable-image rm-shortcode" type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTYyOTU1OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY2NjE3NjE3MX0.q8bjy5ldUXkOb4yzM1jDnegFzSuPpbIHwf5_tHwmtIc/img.jpg?width=980" id="58536" width="1440" height="972" data-rm-shortcode-id="57104b61f28e80a5b053702b1edeaf05" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Credit: Jake Schumacher/Unsplash<p>In our working memories, the left and right hemispheres work independently when it comes to memory storage — what we see on our left is immediately stored in the right hemisphere and vice versa.</p><p>The Picower researchers have found, however, that things get substantially more interesting when we shift our gaze in the opposite direction, or if an object we're looking at moves from one side to the other.</p><p>Using our street-crossing example, when you look to the right and spot the approaching vehicle, a memory of the car is stored in our brain's left hemisphere. When you look left, a copy of that memory is quickly sent to the right hemisphere, but the copy is somehow marked in such a way that the brain understands it's not actually located on your left but is just a memory of something that's currently out of view on your right. The net result is that your working memory remains aware of traffic on both sides even when it's just looking in one direction.</p><p>"If you didn't have that," says <a href="https://picower.mit.edu/earl-k-miller" target="_blank">Earl Miller</a>, senior author of the study and in whose lab the research was conducted, "we would just be simple creatures who could only react to whatever is coming right at us in the environment, that's all. But because we can hold things in mind, we can have volitional control over what we do. We don't have to react to something now, we can save it for later."</p>
Games animals play<img class="rm-lazyloadable-image rm-shortcode" type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTYyOTU2Ni9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY3MTA4NDMwOH0.7_nXD1yRN3-MJouaRikNw54Y1MIn5j1VOYenA_GhcfE/img.jpg?width=980" id="3a8e3" width="1440" height="1077" data-rm-shortcode-id="c98ede4f50a6f3219aab222e4570c35b" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Credit: Eric Isselée/Adobe Stock<p>For the study's experiments, monkeys were taught to identify onscreen objects that didn't match something they had viewed moments earlier, such as an image of a banana. To do this, they had to hold a memory of the original object in memory to make the comparison.</p><p>As this happened, researchers monitored the electrical activity of hundreds of neurons in the prefrontal cortices of both hemispheres. The researchers observed memory transfers as they happened thanks to characteristic patterns in the synchronization of brainwave frequencies that occurred each time a memory was stored, an action that takes mere milliseconds. A software decoder identified the telltale patterns.</p><p>The trials began with the monkeys staring at one side of the screen as an object appeared in the screen's center. As the monkeys perceived the object as belonging primarily to one side or the other, the researchers saw the original memory being stored in the corresponding hemisphere and a copy being made in the other.</p><p>Monkeys were also instructed at times to look from one side to the other, reassigning the central object to a new primary side as the researchers observed the memories being re-written. The speed with which monkeys could spot non-matching objects slowed down during these shifts, giving some hint of the complicated memory gymnastics going on. "It feels trivial to us, but it apparently isn't," says Miller.</p>
An ensemble surprise and mystery<p>The memory is transferred from a group, or ensemble, of neurons in one hemisphere to another ensemble on the other side. One of the surprises in the study is that even though the original memory and its copy describe the same object in the same location, they use completely different neuron ensembles on each side to represent it.</p><p>Miller notes that it used to be believed that individual neurons stored memories but that over time it became clear that groups, or ensembles, of neurons were the actual memory receptacles. Now however, if the same memory is stored in two different types of ensembles due to a difference in their role within a particular hemisphere, maybe things are even more complex than that. "Perhaps even ensembles aren't the functional units of the brain," he surmises. "So what is the functional unit of the brain? It's the computational space that brain network activity creates."</p>
Is your red the same as mine? Probably not.
Each of us lives in our own multi-colored universe. And there's scientific proof of it.
Fractal patterns are noticed by people of all ages, even small children, and have significant calming effects.
- A new study from the University of Oregon found that, by the age of three, children understand and prefer nature's fractal patterns.
- A "fractal" is a pattern that the laws of nature repeat at different scales. Exact fractals are ordered in such a way that the same basic pattern repeats exactly at every scale, like the growth spiral of a plant, for example.
- Separate studies have proven that exposure to fractal patterns in nature can reduce your stress levels significantly.
Fractal patterns are evident in nature as well as in some man-made art, architecture and sculptures.
Credit: Anikakodydkova on Adobe Stock<p>The research team explored how individual differences in processing styles might account for trends in fractal fluency. Researchers exposed participants to images of fractal patterns (exact and statistical), ranging in complexity on computer screens.</p><p>The ages of the participants were:</p><ul><li>82 adults (between the ages of 18-33)</li><li>96 children (between the ages of 3-10)</li></ul><p>When viewing these patterns, the participants chose favorites between pairs of images that differed in complexity. When looking at exact fractal patterns, selections involved different pairs of snowflake-like or branch-like images. For statistical fractals, selections involved choosing between pairs of cloud-like images. </p><p>Although there were some differences in the preferences of adults and children, the overall trends were similar: exact patterns with greater complexity were more preferred. This study confirms that these preference trends are apparent in early childhood, suggesting that the appreciation for common fractal aesthetics is formed earlier in our development than previously thought. </p><p>Prior to this study, exposure to fractal patterns might have been expected to vary across the lifespan of a person due to environmental and developmental patterns. Instead, this study found a consistent preference across childhood and through adulthood which suggests a stable fractal aesthetic is established early in life. There is a possibility, according to this study, that an early biological or evolutionary mechanism optimizes our visual system for processing fractals. </p>
Fractal patterns can be used to significantly reduce stress<img class="rm-lazyloadable-image rm-shortcode" type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDk1OTg2OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY3NTU0NDQ0N30.asGpAHgLrh0nZSWeZYyvYdP_yMkn-ZN8GvOWekDh9PA/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C618%2C0%2C6&height=700" id="4edaa" width="1245" height="700" data-rm-shortcode-id="54d01910340ccd24b3eaa7ebe79f039b" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="fern plant fractal pattern in nature" />
Fractal patterns and designs can reduce your stress by up to 60%, according to research.
Credit: MNStudio on Adobe Stock<p>The term "fractal" was first coined in 1975 by Benoit Mandelbrot, who discovered that simple mathematic rules apply to a vast array of things that often looked visually complex. Since then, many studies have been conducted on what fractals are, where we find them, and even how they impact us.</p><p>The study above, mentioning the positive benefits that fractals have in even small children, becomes particularly interesting when you begin to understand the potential benefits we derive from even minimal exposure to fractal patterns. </p><p><strong>Fractal patterns can reduce stress by up to 60 percent, according to <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/codes-joy/201209/fun-fractals#:~:text=The%20results%20of%20many%20studies,physiological%20resonance%20within%20the%20eye." target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Psychology Today</a>. </strong></p><p>Exposure to fractal patterns in nature can reduce your stress levels significantly. It seems this kind of stress reduction most often occurs because of a certain physiological resonance within the eye. While this effect is most prominent in nature's fractal patterns, some research indicates that certain types of artwork carrying fractal patterns can also promote relaxation.</p><p><strong>How can you use fractals to feel happier? </strong></p><p>A separate <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/codes-joy/201209/fun-fractals" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Psychology Today</a> article focuses on how to use our knowledge of the positive benefits of fractals to our advantage. To take a walk in nature, visit a park or garden or sit and watch the clouds for a while, paying special attention to the patterns you see can help you include this kind of relaxation practice into your daily life. Alternatively, you can opt for a visually pleasing fractal plant (like the spiral aloe or a fern) to sit at your office desk. </p><p>Additionally, you can conduct some "research" of your own by placing yourself in fractal-rich environments for 20 minutes a day for one week and monitoring your stress levels before and after. </p>
Certain colors are globally linked to certain feelings, the study reveals.
- Color psychology is often used in marketing to alter your perception of products and services.
- Various studies and experiments across multiple years have given us more insight into the link between personality and color.
- The results of a new study spanning 6 continents (30 nations) shows universal correlations between colors and emotions around the globe.
The root of color psychology<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="b2c3bc9be0e2a8172362d434d18f41d6"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/OM4fXB23pCQ?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>There is a very likely chance you've even been "fooled" by color marketing in the past, or you've chosen one product over another subconsciously due to colors that were designed to influence your emotions.<br></p><p>Companies that want to be known for being dependable often use blue in their logos, for example (Dell, HP, IBM). Companies that want to be perceived as fun and exciting go for a splash of orange (Fanta, Nickelodeon, even Amazon). Green is associated with natural, peaceful emotions and is often used by companies like Whole Foods and Tropicana. </p><p><strong>Your favorite color says a lot about your personality. </strong></p><p>Various studies and experiments across multiple years (<a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49595886_Personality_Traits_and_Colour_Preferences" target="_blank">2010</a>, <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jopy.12087" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2014</a>, <a href="http://oaji.net/articles/2015/1170-1448038739.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2015</a>, and more recently in <a href="https://www.verywellmind.com/color-psychology-2795824#modern-research-on-color-psychology" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2019</a>) have given us more insight into the link between your personality and your favorite color.</p><p>Red, for example, is considered a bold color and is associated with feelings such as excitement, passion, anger, danger, energy, and love. The personality traits of this color might be someone who is bold, a little impulsive, and who loves adventure. </p><p>Orange, on the other hand, is considered representative of creativity, happiness, and freedom. The personality traits of this color can be fun, playful, cheerful, nurturing, and productive. Read more about color psychology and personalities <a href="https://bigthink.com/mind-brain/color-personality-psychology?rebelltitem=2#rebelltitem2" target="_self">here</a>.</p>
Study reveals which colors best suit which emotions around the globe<img class="rm-lazyloadable-image rm-shortcode" type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDYzMTk5OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyODc4OTg5OH0.bY-pu-MFNivdJLDJuBp9TBKrhwuy7hngUa1aIWxQMVw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C93%2C0%2C94&height=700" id="33fff" width="1245" height="700" data-rm-shortcode-id="e2a7c4fe9fc2a2b9bc1f97e2740472e6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="concept of color psychology how colors make us feel color emotions" />
Certain colors are globally ties to certain emotions, the study reveals.
Image by agsandrew on Shutterstock<p>In this particular survey, participants were asked to fill out an online questionnaire which involved assigning 20 emotions to 12 different color terms. They were also asked to specify the intensity with which they associated the color term with the emotion.</p><p><strong>Certain colors are globally linked to certain emotions, the study reveals.</strong></p><p>The results of this study showed a few definite correlations between colors and emotions throughout the globe. Red, for example, is the only color that is strongly associated with both negative (anger) and positive (love) feelings. Brown, on the other end of the spectrum, is the color that triggers the fewest emotions globally.<br></p><p>The color white is closely associated with sadness in China, while purple is what is closely associated with sadness in Greece. This can be traced back to the roots of each culture, with white being worn at funerals in China and dark purple being the Greek Orthodox Church's color of mourning. </p><p>Yellow is more associated with joy, specifically in countries that see less sunshine. Meanwhile, its association with joy is weaker in areas that have greater exposure to sunshine. </p><p><a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200910150247.htm" target="_blank">According to Dr. Oberfeld-Twistel</a>, it is difficult to say exactly what the causes for global similarities and differences are. "There is a range of possible influencing factors: language, culture, religion, climate, the history of human development, the human perceptual system."</p>