'Gender Pay Scorecard' grades 50 major U.S. companies

What factors explain the gender pay gap?

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  • The report was conducted by the investment firm Arjuna Capital, which has been publishing the Gender Pay Scorecard for the past three years.
  • Only three companies — Starbucks, Mastercard and Citigroup — received an "A", as defined by the report's methodology.
  • It's likely that discrimination explains part of the gender pay gap, but it's a complex issue that often gets oversimplified.

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Evolution: That famous ‘march of progress’ image is just wrong

Some fish evolved legs and walked onto the land. Right?

DEA PICTURE LIBRARY/De Agostini via Getty Images

Evolution explains how all living beings, including us, came to be. It would be easy to assume evolution works by continuously adding features to organisms, constantly increasing their complexity.

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Dad bod & dad brain: How a man's brain changes when he becomes a father

The bonding experience is promoted by important neurological changes.

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  • In the first days and weeks of fatherhood, a man's testosterone and cortisol levels decrease and oxytocin, estrogen, and prolactin levels surge, promoting an important bonding experience between a father and his newborn child.
  • One of the most significant changes scientists have observed in the brain of new-dad mice is neurogenesis (the process of new neurons being formed in the brain), directly linked to the time spent with their newborn pup in close proximity.
  • Human males also "bulk" their brains, with areas linked to attachment, nurturing and empathy showing increased gray and white matter.
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Are humans hardwired for monogamy?

Evolution steered humans toward pair bonding to ensure the survival of genes. But humans tend to get restless.

  • Monogamy is natural, but adultery is, too, says biological anthropologist Helen Fisher.
  • Even though humans are animals that form pair bonds, some humans have a predisposition for restlessness. This might come from the evolutionary development of a dual human reproductive strategy.
  • This drive to fall in love and form a pair bond evolved for an ecological reason: to rear our children as a team.
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What are the psychological effects of consuming violence online?

Can our bodies tell the difference between recorded violence and real life danger?

  • "The internet is an exciting and a dangerous place," says journalist and documentarian Sebastian Junger.
  • He argues that because of thousands of years of evolution, our bodies react to seeing decapitations on screens as if they were happening in front of or to us.
  • According to Junger, the internet is too new for us to really understand the long-term effects it will have on our lives.
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