Why do you feel the way you feel, think the way you think and behave the way you do? Here are 5 possible explanations.
- Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior, but did you know there are actually 5 different perspectives to psychology?
- The earliest study of human psychology can be traced back to 400-500 BC.
- The biological approach, the psychodynamic approach, the behavioral approach, the cognitive approach, and the humanistic approach offer valid yet opposing ideas on why humans behave the way we do.
Psychology’s five major perspectives: Why are you the way you are?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzQzODg2Mi9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0ODYyMTA2N30.CnprLD3xGl-3B8YMoRcvUWo3-oVrBOaswSS5-pbiPSU/img.jpg?width=980" id="54fa4" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="4037c7547a1c937b9895d0699d14459c" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-tablet-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzQzODg2Mi9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0ODYyMTA2N30.CnprLD3xGl-3B8YMoRcvUWo3-oVrBOaswSS5-pbiPSU/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C440%2C0%2C441&height=700" alt="concept of psychology five approaches to human psychology" />
There are five approaches to human psychology - which one do you trust most?
Image by FGC on Shutterstock<p>The study of psychology has progressed greatly, thanks to Wundt and other pioneers. Over the years, psychologists began to study all aspects of human behavior from personality traits to brain functions. Eventually, the studies began to look at the same human behaviors from various angles including biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic perspectives. These became known as the "five major perspectives" in psychology.</p><p><strong>The biological approach</strong></p><p>The biological approach to psychology focuses on examining our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from a strictly biological point of view. In this approach, all thoughts, feelings, and behaviors would have a biological cause. </p><p>This approach is relevant to the study of psychology in three ways: </p><ol><li>Comparative method: different species of animals can be studied and then compared to each other. This helps us better understand human behavior. </li><li>Physiology: the study of how the nervous system and hormones work, how the brain functions, how changes in the structure and/or function can affect our behavior. For example, how prescribed drugs to treat depression can affect our behavior through their interaction with the nervous system. </li><li>Investigation of inheritance: the study of what we inherit from our parents (through genetics). For example, whether high intelligence is inherited from one generation to the next. </li></ol><p>Each of these is inherently important to how we study human psychology from a biological point of view, and it's suggested that behavior can be <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/biological-psychology.html#:~:text=The%20biological%20approach%20believes%20us,thus%20physical%20point%20of%20view.&text=All%20thoughts%2C%20feeling%20%26%20behavior%20ultimately%20have%20a%20biological%20cause." target="_blank">largely explained through biology</a>. </p><p><strong>The psychodynamic approach</strong></p><p>The psychodynamic approach to psychology is most well-known for its ties to Sigmund Freud and his followers. This approach includes all theories in psychology that see humans functioning based on the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious and between the different structures of the personality. </p><p>Freud developed a collection of theories (most of which were based on what his patients told him during therapy) that formed the basis of the psychodynamic approach. </p><p>The <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html#:~:text=The%20psychodynamic%20approach%20includes%20all,different%20structures%20of%20the%20personality.&text=Freud's%20psychoanalysis%20is%20both%20a%20theory%20and%20therapy." target="_blank">psychodynamic approach</a> can be best described in basic assumptions that: </p><ol><li>Our behavior and feelings are powerfully affected by unconscious motives. </li><li>Our behavior and feelings as adults are rooted in childhood experiences. </li><li>All behavior has a cause, and that cause is usually an unconscious one.</li><li>Personality is made of three parts (ID, ego, and super-ego).</li></ol><p><strong>The behavioral approach</strong></p><p>The <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html#:~:text=Behaviorism%20refers%20to%20a%20psychological,through%20interaction%20with%20the%20environment." target="_blank">behavioral approach to psychology</a> focuses on how one's environment and external stimuli impact a person's mental states and development. More importantly, it focuses on how these factors specifically "train" us for the behaviors we exhibit later on. </p><p>People who support this approach to psychology over others may believe that the concept of "free will" is an illusion because all behaviors are learned and based on our past experiences. In other words, that we've been conditioned to act the way we act so nothing is ever truly our own choice. </p><p><strong>The cognitive approach</strong></p><p>The <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive.html" target="_blank">cognitive approach to psychology</a> shifts away from conditioned behavior and psychoanalytical notions to the study of how our mind works, how we process information, and how we use that processed information to drive our behaviors. </p><p>This approach focuses on: </p><ol><li>The meditational processes that occur between the stimulus and our response to the stimulus. </li><li>Human beings are information processors and all learning is based on the relationships we form with various stimuli. </li><li>Internal mental behavior can be scientifically studied using experiments that show us how we react to certain stimuli. </li></ol><p>In other words, the cognitive approach focuses on how our brains react to the environment around us and how our cognitive brain has very specific ways of processing certain stimuli which can explain why we think, feel and behave in certain ways. </p><p><strong>The humanistic approach </strong></p><p>The <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/humanistic.html" target="_blank">humanistic approach to psychology</a> was considered something of a rebellion against what psychologists saw as the limitations of the behaviorist and psychodynamic theories of psychology. It's the idea that we should approach psychological studies uniquely for each individual because we are all so vastly different. </p><p>This approach focuses on: </p><ol><li>The idea that we all have free will. </li><li>The idea that people are all basically good and that we have an innate need to make ourselves and the world better. </li><li>That we are motivated to self-actualize, grow, and thrive. </li><li>That our experiences are what drive us. </li></ol><p>This approach puts emphasis on the uniqueness of every person and every situation, suggesting that the other studies can never be fully accurate as there is such a wide range of thoughts, feelings, and human behaviors that can adapt and change as we do. </p>
Most people don't know what they're passionate about.
- A niche, in terms of the economy and what you do for a living, is often considered a special talent or service that speaks to you on a different, secondary level. Adam Davidson, co-founder of NPR's "Planet Money" argues that when a niche finds an audience and becomes a successful business, it evolves into its own primary economy.
- For most people, finding something you're passionate about can take a long time. The search should happen concurrently with your current job and life, not in place of them.
- It won't be easy and there will have to be sacrifices, Davidson says. But when it's something that you can't live without doing, then it is worth investing the time and effort.
The key to raising indistractable kids is to first determine why they're distracted.
- When it comes to the rules and restrictions placed on children, author and Stanford Graduate School of Business lecturer Nir Eyal argues that they have a lot in common with another restricted population in society: prisoners. These restrictions have contributed to a generation that overuses and is distracted by technology.
- Self-determination theory, a popular theory of human motivation, says that we all need three things for psychological well-being: competence, autonomy, and relatedness. When we are denied these psychological nutrients, the needs displacement hypothesis says that we look for them elsewhere. For kids today, that means more video games and screen time.
- In order to raise indistractable kids, Eyal says we must first address issues of overscheduling, de-emphasize standardized tests as indicators of competency, and provide them with ample free time so that they can be properly socialized in the real world and not look to technology to fill those voids.
Removing the pressure of finding your "dying passion" makes it easier to connect with the "why" of your work.
- Do you know your purpose in life? If not, London Business School professor Dan Cable says that's OK. It's normal, even.
- Many people have trouble finding their purpose because the task itself is too demanding. One way to solve this problem is by connecting with the end user of your work.
- For example, Microsoft will take its teams on site to interview clients and find solutions. Programmers understand who's using their products by hearing it straight from the source, and this gives more meaning to their work.
Learn how to negotiate like a shark. Here are Shark Tank investor Daymond John's tips for powerful communication.
- You're negotiating every day of your life, whether it's a huge business deal or something as small as getting the remote control from your partner, says Shark Tank investor Daymond John.
- Over 65 percent of communication is body language. Only seven percent is what you say. Using body language effectively is a simple way to shift power to your court during negotiations or strategically shift power over to others.
- Used-car salespeople have this down to a fine art, says John. They are the best because they listen to clues in the way potential customers talk and then they engage your senses: sight, smell, touch, sound, and taste.