from the world's big
Pew Research Center data shows that most people think diversity improves lives in their countries.
Does diversity improve lives?<p>The center surveyed more than 28,000 peoples across Columbia, India, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mexico, Tunisia, Venezuela, Vietnam, South African, and the Philippines on their opinions of diversity within their borders. These countries were chosen based on their middle-income status, differing degrees of technology ownership, and high levels of migration (internal or external).</p><p>The survey asked respondents how they viewed increasing numbers of other races, religions, and nationalities and what effect that had on the quality of life in their countries. Additional questions were tailored to a country's unique demographics and circumstances.</p><p>For example, respondents in the Philippines were asked how favorably they viewed Muslims and Christians, while Tunisians were asked about Sunnis and Shiites. Others, such as Mexico and Lebanon, were asked about asylum seekers fleeing to their countries.</p><p>Pew found that "[a]cross the 11 countries surveyed, more said their countries are better off thanks to the increasing number of people of different races, ethnic groups, and nationalities who live there." A minority said the increase made no difference, and an even smaller minority said their country was worse off.</p>
Testing tribalism<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzQwODQyMy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTU5NDEzNjg3N30.Om1i_y--gXcX0pqzmIDUM2CJLsiP8gdZ-90k5C8dvKM/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C215%2C0%2C91&height=700" id="94fbb" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="e05016b95976d40d499a0820b055e74b" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="crowd of Syrian refugees" />
Lebanon and Jordan took in millions of Syrian refugees during the civil war, helping to explain their complex relationship with diversity in their borders.
Getting used to each other<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="cdee76bef43c85ed51018f8b6d8c0690"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/7cmEwt4gxbc?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>So, what leads to improved views of multiculturalism? According to Pew's data, those with the most positive views on racial, ethnic, and religious diversity were those who interacted most with these groups. More contact equaled more positive views.</p><p>In all of the countries, younger adults were more likely to interact with people of different backgrounds, and except for Jordan, they also held more favorable views of others. The same held true for those who attained higher levels of education. </p><p>This data mirrors another Pew survey in which researchers asked Americans their views on increased racial and ethnic diversity.</p><p>Around 58 percent of Americans said increasing numbers of diverse people would make the United States a better place to live. Only 9 percent said it would make the country worse, while 31 percent said it didn't make a difference. Opinions were split along partisan lines, with more Democrats viewing the statement favorably than Republicans. </p><p>But like the 11 emerging countries, Americans varied by age and education, too. Fifteen percent of respondents 65 and older believed growing multiculturalism made the U.S. worse—the highest of any age group. And 70 percent of college graduates saw diversity in a positive light, compared to 45 percent of those with a high school diploma or less school.</p><p>The survey's complete results can be found <a href="https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2020/06/16/attitudes-toward-diversity-in-11-emerging-economies/" target="_blank">here</a>, while the survey on American attitudes on diversity is <a href="https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/06/14/most-americans-express-positive-views-of-countrys-growing-racial-and-ethnic-diversity/" target="_blank">here</a>.</p>
A future toward acceptance<p>These data suggest that the world hasn't succumbed to a <a href="https://bigthink.com/videos/tribalism-politics" target="_blank">new era of tribalism</a> and hate. Far from it. The beliefs of cosmopolitanism and ethics of diversity are, in fact, spreading across many of the world's emerging countries and will likely increase as <a href="https://www.npr.org/2018/11/15/668106376/generation-z-is-the-most-racially-and-ethnically-diverse-yet" target="_blank">subsequent generations</a> become more educated and integrated. That progress may be uneven, but it's real and measurable.</p><p>An appreciation of, even desire for, diversity won't end the tragic events that generate eye-catching headlines, but it can make our shared futures more manageable. As Kwame Anthony Apiah wrote in his book "Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers": "I am urging that we should learn about people in other places, take an interest in their civilizations, their arguments, their errors, their achievements, not because that will bring us to agreement, but because it will help us get used to one another."</p>
The lessons we've learned here on Earth will affect how we govern a new world.
- The colonization of Mars is a real possibility for the not-too-distant future. A big question that author Michael Shermer and others are considering is how what we know about government on Earth will shape the politics of a new planet.
- Favored by Elon Musk, Shermer shoots down the suggestion of a direct democracy because he says that historically it does not work. Direct democracy can lead to a "mob mentality" where hysterics overtake logic, leading to witch hunts and other bad consequences.
- Shermer explains why he thinks the government on Mars will, in many ways, mirror what we know as a representative democracy. There will be constitutional republic and a Bill of Rights that determines what people can and can't do.
Why did the dinosaurs go extinct? Because they didn't have a space program.
- Space exploration is more than just the ultimate adventure, our study and investigation of space yields great scientific rewards, says astronaut Garrett Reisman.
- Earth is wonderful, but it won't last forever, so it's important that we maintain a big picture view to ensure the survival of the human species.
- Exploring space is our ticket to "the ultimate plan B," according to Reisman. If there were to occur a mass extinction event on Earth, the humans that inhabit another planet in our solar system will be the only hope of human survival.
The Data Atlas of the World specialises in simple yet revealing maps of the world.
- Few simple things are as expressive as a well-crafted cartogram.
- The Data Atlas of the World provides a simple overview of complex data.
- Based on neutral datasets, this growing collection offers context without bias.
Country sizes<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzE2MjYyNy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYwMDExNTU4NX0.JkyJP0fwkEdwzt1b39cbrkvgqcvcmyZlajBW3_eNeKQ/img.jpg?width=980" id="95a2e" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="5599aeac8d32dcf8d5cc7492666699ef" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="What if the best cartographic projection is not a map but a cartogram instead?" />
What if the best cartographic projection is not a map but a cartogram instead?
Image courtesy of Carrie Osgood / Data Atlas of the World<p>Wait a minute, do we need a special map to show us how big the world's countries are? Don't our regular maps do a good enough job? Actually… No. </p><p><span></span>The earth is a globe – almost everyone is on board with that (see #<a href="https://bigthink.com/strange-maps/end-of-flat-earth" target="_blank">1017</a>). That's a three-dimensional object – one dimension more than your standard, flat map. Ergo: any cartographic projection of a globe onto a map will lead to some distortion of geographic fact. </p><p><span></span>And the Mercator projection, still popular after all these centuries, will do so more than most – especially towards the north and south poles. Check out #<a href="https://bigthink.com/strange-maps/compare-true-size-of-countries" target="_blank">954</a>, an earlier post showing you how to drag and drop whole countries on top of each other to get a sense of their actual sizes. </p><p><span></span>However, <em>this</em> map neatly solves the problem of the missing dimension. It turns each country into a circle corresponding to its geographic size – without the distortive effect of cartographic projection. </p><p><span></span>Russia clearly is the world's largest country, but not as large as 'Mercator Russia'. The other geographic giants stand out immediately: Canada, the US, Brazil, China and Australia – curiously, all just about of equal size. </p><p>Sprinkled across most continents are mid-sized nations like Argentina, DR Congo and India. Only Europe consists entirely of countries that are either relatively small – yes, that includes you, France, UK and Germany – or positively tiny. <br></p>
Population sizes<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzE2MjYyOC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzODA4MzgyNH0.sLKbEKPDgovD15IuVCr1Hm9B1O4xhPN3KwwVL2al_JI/img.jpg?width=980" id="2d90e" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c8442bd56e27b7b3c2f967fb546e2d87" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="Territorial giants can be population mini-mes, and vice versa." />
Territorial giants can be population mini-mes, and vice versa.
Image courtesy of Carrie Osgood / Data Atlas of the World<p>Isn't it curious that Argentina and India are in the same geographic size category? Because their population sizes almost couldn't be farther apart: India has 1.4 billion inhabitants, give or take a few million. Argentina only has about 45 million. That's one thirty-first of India's population!</p><p><span></span>This map reflects that difference. The dataset powering the cartogram isn't area, but population. And it's a whole different world. </p><p><span></span>A geographic mini-me like Bangladesh now rivals a territorial giant like Russia for size. (In fact, there are now considerably more Bangladeshi than Russians: 165 vs. 146 million). As mentioned, India blows Argentina away. And China is the biggest cheese wheel on this map, about 50 million inhabitants ahead of India – for now. </p><p><span></span>Canada and Australia, so visible on the previous map, have shrivelled away – totally overshadowed by their respective neighbors, the US and Indonesia. Nigeria is Africa's population superstar, while it's now more obvious which are the so-called Big Five countries in western Europe: the UK, France, Germany, Spain and Italy. </p>
CO2 emissions<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzE2MjYyOS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxOTA1NjAzMX0.rphENaX4BNc-NkCV2m2rvsSklgdY4jjdynQWSTFi-Ro/img.jpg?width=980" id="ffc7c" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="38392175d0e0da0384ef13304d802f12" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="Emission levels are a crude indication of economic development \u2013 and a more acute one of environmental damage." />
Emission levels are a crude indication of economic development – and a more acute one of environmental damage.
Image courtesy of Carrie Osgood / Data Atlas of the World<p>Here's another way the global cookie crumbles: Carbon dioxide emissions. As a by-product of industrialisation, it's a crude measure of a country's economic maturity. </p><p><span></span>But as a greenhouse gas, CO2 contributes to climate change. Most countries have agreed to cut back their emissions. In virtual unanimity, the world's countries in 2016 decided to reduce their CO2 emissions. </p><p><span></span>As this map shows, they've got their work cut out for them. If we look at CO2 emissions in absolute terms, China again leads the world, with the US and India in second and third place. </p><p><span></span>Put together, Europe's various states put the continent firmly on the world map, with major contributions by Russia and Germany. </p><p><span></span>Africa's CO2 emissions are negligible by comparison, except for South Africa, the continent's most industrialised economy. In Latin America, only Mexico and Brazil belch out CO2 in world-class quantities. </p><p><span></span>The emissions of the world's most advanced economies have to start coming down quickly – as per the 2016 Paris Agreement. In the first place, to avoid overheating the planet. </p><p><span></span>But by extension, the more sustainable methods of energy generation now being developed will also give developing economies a chance to catch up without frying the planet. The alternative? Just imagine each of those circles in Africa swelling to European size. Then we might as well start packing our bags for Antarctica (see #<a href="https://bigthink.com/strange-maps/what-the-world-will-look-like-4degc-warmer" target="_blank">842</a>). </p><p><strong><br></strong></p><p><strong>Strange Maps #1022</strong></p><p><strong></strong><em>For these and many more insights into the world today and tomorrow, visit the </em><a href="https://dataworldatlas.com/" target="_blank">Data Atlas of the World</a><em>. The collection grew out of a world map of religions, previously discussed here (see #<a href="https://bigthink.com/strange-maps/world-map-of-religions" target="_blank">967</a>).</em><br></p><p><em>These and other samples are free to view. More (and more detailed) maps with country labels and data specifics are available behind the paywall.</em><br></p><p><em>Got a strange map? Let me know at </em><em></em><a href="mailto:email@example.com">firstname.lastname@example.org</a>.</p>
The associations of civil society give us freedom to find systems that meet our needs.
- There are three subsets of civil society: primary, secondary, and tertiary associations.
- Rochester Institute of Technology professor Lauren Hall says there are two arguments for expanding civil society and limiting the power of government, and they include elements of efficiency, morality, and coercion.
- Ideally in civil society, secondary associations give you more freedom to meet your needs in various ways. If we relied more heavily on civil society rather than government, we'd have more wiggle room to find systems that work for us.