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7 new things we’ve learned about the brain
Brain plasticity. Mindful superpowers. Pokémon invading our grey matter. Scientists have only begun to learn about the human brain.
- In 1848, Phineaus Gage kicked off our modern neuroscience after blasting a tamping iron through his skull.
- We explore 7 things scientists have since learned about this important, complex organ.
- Many mysteries remain such as where consciousness originates and how we evolved such a multipurpose mind.
In 1848, Phineas Gage was laying railroad tracks in Cavendish, Vermont. As he was packing the powder, the charge detonated prematurely, launching the tamping iron — a three-and-a-half foot long, one-inch thick, and 13-and-a-half-pound spear of pure metal — through his head. It entered through his left check, passed behind his eye, and launched out the top of his head to land 30 yards away.
Gage miraculously survived, though he was obviously not unfazed. Normally a thorough man, Gage could no longer follow-up with plans. His friends complained that he was no longer himself. While he recovered enough to live a normal life, even moving to Chile to become a carriage driver, the traumatic injury had changed him.
Gage's story has been retold in countless psychology textbooks — and exaggerated through countless retellings. He is patient zero for personality change from brain injury and an important milestone in our understanding of the human brain. His exhumed skull holds a place of honor at the Warren Anatomical Museum at Harvard, and neuroscientists continue to study it to this day.
Since then, we've learned much about how the brain works and its role in making us who we are. Here are seven things scientists have discovered about this incredible organ.
Cabbies, a lobectomy, and neuroplasticity
London cab drivers alter their brains when developing mental maps of the city. (Photo: Yiannis Chatzitheodorou/Flickr)
Neuroplasticity comes in two varieties: structural plasticity and functional plasticity. Structural plasticity occurs when the brain alters its physical structure through learning and interaction with the environment, functional plasticity when the brain moves functions from a damaged area to an undamaged one. We've known about neuroplasticity for a long time, but researchers are only beginning to uncover its potential.
"[Plasticity] is actually very powerful," neuroscientist Michael Merzenich said during his TED talk. "This lifelong capacity for plasticity, for brain change, is powerfully expressed. It is the basis of our real differentiation, one individual from another. You can look down in the brain of an animal that's engaged in a specific skill, and you can witness or document this change on a variety of levels."
Even seemingly mundane tasks can have powerful effects on our brains. In one example of neuroplasticity, neuroscientists compared the brain scans of London bus and taxi drivers. They discovered that cabbies sport a measurably larger hippocampus – a key area of the brain involved in spatial memory. That's because cabbies develop intricate mental maps of London to navigate to their fares' destinations. Bus drivers, who drive the same route ad nauseam, do not.
Functional plasticity, on the other hand, provides some extreme examples. Gage provided neuroscience its premier case study, but there have been many more since.
One followed a seven-year-old boy known simply as U.D. When U.D. was 4, he began suffering debilitating seizures. When medications didn't alleviate them, doctors performed a lobectomy and removed a full third of his right hemisphere, including the right occipital lobe. U.D.'s brain compensated for the trauma and began shifting visual tasks to his left hemisphere, including the ability to recognize faces, a task typically performed by the right occipital lobe.
What's old is still new
U.D.'s astounding recovery was likely aided by his youthful brain, and it is true that neuroplasticity declines with age. But a growing body of evidence suggests we've been underestimating elderly gray matter.
In a study published last year in Cell Stem Cell, researchers autopsied the hippocampi of 28 people, ages 14 to 79. They found the hippocampi of older subjects still maintained thousands of immature neurons and intermediate neural progenitors. Unlike rodents and primates, humans appear to generate new brain cells well into our twilight years.
"We found that older people have similar ability to make thousands of hippocampal new neurons from progenitor cells as younger people do," lead author Maura Boldrini said in a release. "We also found equivalent volumes of the hippocampus (a brain structure used for emotion and cognition) across ages."
What causes reduced neuroplasticity in the elderly then? Boldrini postulates it may come from a smaller pool of neuron connections and the formation of fewer new blood vessels.
That may not always be the case, though. Neuroscientists at Tufts University School of Medicine discovered a molecular mechanism that directly enforced plasticity in mice brains. By targeting that mechanism, they were able to reestablish plasticity originally thought lost to old age.
New brain cells
Mouse spinal cord neurons. (Photo: NICHD/Flickr)
Scientists aren't just unearthing the ways the brain works; they're finding all new features. In a study published last year in Nature Neuroscience, researchers detailed their discovery of a hitherto unknown brain cell.
Called the rosehip neuron, this cell sports compact dendrites with many branching points and makes up about 10 percent of the neocortex. Its exact function is unclear, but the researchers speculate it could be an inhibitory neuron, meaning it lessens activity in that region of the brain.
It also remains unclear whether the rosehip neuron is unique to humans, though it has never been seen in mice or other laboratory animals. If it is unique to people, the rosehip neuron and other potentially secretive cells could explain why treatments that work in mice don't translate to people.
"We really don't understand what makes the human brain special. Studying the differences at the level of cells and circuits is a good place to start, and now we have new tools to do just that," Ed Lein, study co-led and an investigator at the Allen Institute for Brain Science, said in a release.
Gotta remember them all, Pokemon
A Pikachu parade in Yokohama, Japan. (Photo: Yoshikazu Takada/Flickr)
As we age, last week can become a hazy blur, while experiences from third grade remain vivid and alive. If you're a child of the '90s, that means Pokémon.
Researchers at Sandford University placed adult test subjects in a functional MRI and showed them images of random Pokémon characters. The brains of adults who played Pokémon as children lit up the MRI more than the control group who did not. Pokémon players' brains all activated the same site, the occipitotemporal sulcus, a brain fold behind our ears that responds to images of animals.
"What was unique about Pokémon is that there are hundreds of characters, and you have to know everything about them in order to play the game successfully. The game rewards you for individuating hundreds of these little, similar-looking characters," study first author Jesse Gomez said in a release. "I figured, 'If you don't get a region for that, then it's never going to happen.'''
It's not just colorful pocket monsters that leave an indelible impression on our brains. A study published in the Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease found that music from our youth activates a phenomenon called autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR). For people afflicted with Alzheimer's, such music can bring them out of their mental haze.
Mindfulness unlocks mental superpowers
Like so many religious experiences, meditation has come under the scientific lens and been found to have powerful effects on our brains.
Neuroscientist Richard Davidson scanned the minds of prominent meditators (i.e., people who had meditated up to 62,000 hours in their lifetime). He found that meditation altered their brains' ability to produce gamma waves – quickly oscillating waves associated with attention and memory – significantly more than the average person.
When super meditators were asked to focus on compassion, for example, their gamma levels jumped 700-800 percent. These effects weren't limited to when they meditated, either. Their gamma brainwaves were always heightened.
Daniel Goleman, who coauthored Altered Traits with Davidson, told Big Think: "We have to assume that the special state of consciousness that you see in the highest-level meditators is a lot like something described in the classical meditation literatures centuries ago, which is that there is a state of being which is not like our ordinary state."
Laughter is the best medicine (for brain surgery)
The average four-year-old laughs 300 times a day, while the average adult laughs 17 times. Chances are this bit of pop knowledge is exaggerated, but it points to an important truth. The happier, healthier times in our lives are filled with laughter.
Laughter triggers the limbic system at the center of our brains, an area that influences emotions, memories, and stimulation. This mental surge is not only emotionally uplifting; it also has physically salubrious results. It reduces pain, boosts heart rate, produces certain antibodies, and improves the function of blood vessels.
Neuroscientists at Emory University School of Medicine have even hacked this physiological response to make awake brain surgery safer. By stimulating the cingulum bundle, a collection of white matter fibers that allow for communication between limbic system components, they caused immediate laughter in their patients, followed by a sense of calm and happiness. This helped prevent patients of awake brain surgery from panicking, making for a safer operation.
If laughter can uplift someone with a doctor literally poking around in their head, imagine what it can do for the rest of us.
Memory is a disease
Well, it may have originated with a virus at any rate. An international team of researchers recently reassessed Arc, a protein essential to memory formation. When researchers looked at how the protein assembles itself, they found that it has properties akin to a virus infecting its host.
"We went into this line of research knowing that Arc was special in many ways, but when we discovered that Arc was able to mediate cell-to-cell transport of RNA, we were floored," postdoctoral fellow Elissa Pastuzyn, the study's lead author, said in a release. "No other non-viral protein that we know of acts in this way."
Specifically, it looks a lot like how the HIV retrovirus operates. The researchers hypothesize that 350-400 million years ago, an ancestor to retroviruses, dubbed retrotransposons, inserted genetic material into animals' DNA. This led to the development of Arc in mammalian brains today, including humans. Without Arc, long-term memories cannot be solidified, so in a way memories infect our brains.
The human brain 101
Learning about the brain is a challenge. Neuroscientists are trying to measure the operations of a complex tool using the very tool they are trying to measure. It's no easy task, yet in the last half century, they have accumulated a vast amount of knowledge about the human brain.
Yet many mysteries remain. We don't know what consciousness is, where it comes from, or how it evolved. We don't understand how the human brain can outcompete so many others in the animal kingdom. And although we've thought long and hard about it, we still don't know what thought really is.
Despite these seven incredible facts, we're only at the introductory course of our understanding. We still have much to learn about the human brain.
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Northwell Health is using insights from website traffic to forecast COVID-19 hospitalizations two weeks in the future.
- The machine-learning algorithm works by analyzing the online behavior of visitors to the Northwell Health website and comparing that data to future COVID-19 hospitalizations.
- The tool, which uses anonymized data, has so far predicted hospitalizations with an accuracy rate of 80 percent.
- Machine-learning tools are helping health-care professionals worldwide better constrain and treat COVID-19.
The value of forecasting<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTA0Njk2OC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyMzM2NDQzOH0.rid9regiDaKczCCKBsu7wrHkNQ64Vz_XcOEZIzAhzgM/img.jpg?width=980" id="2bb93" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="31345afbdf2bd408fd3e9f31520c445a" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-width="1546" data-height="1056" />
Northwell emergency departments use the dashboard to monitor in real time.
Credit: Northwell Health<p>One unique benefit of forecasting COVID-19 hospitalizations is that it allows health systems to better prepare, manage and allocate resources. For example, if the tool forecasted a surge in COVID-19 hospitalizations in two weeks, Northwell Health could begin:</p><ul><li>Making space for an influx of patients</li><li>Moving personal protective equipment to where it's most needed</li><li>Strategically allocating staff during the predicted surge</li><li>Increasing the number of tests offered to asymptomatic patients</li></ul><p>The health-care field is increasingly using machine learning. It's already helping doctors develop <a href="https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2020/06/09/dc19-1870" target="_blank">personalized care plans for diabetes patients</a>, improving cancer screening techniques, and enabling mental health professionals to better predict which patients are at <a href="https://healthitanalytics.com/news/ehr-data-fuels-accurate-predictive-analytics-for-suicide-risk" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">elevated risk of suicide</a>, to name a few applications.</p><p>Health systems around the world have already begun exploring how <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315944/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">machine learning can help battle the pandemic</a>, including better COVID-19 screening, diagnosis, contact tracing, and drug and vaccine development.</p><p>Cruzen said these kinds of tools represent a shift in how health systems can tackle a wide variety of problems.</p><p>"Health care has always used the past to predict the future, but not in this mathematical way," Cruzen said. "I think [Northwell Health's new predictive tool] really is a great first example of how we should be attacking a lot of things as we go forward."</p>
Making machine-learning tools openly accessible<p>Northwell Health has made its predictive tool <a href="https://github.com/northwell-health/covid-web-data-predictor" target="_blank">available for free</a> to any health system that wishes to utilize it.</p><p>"COVID is everybody's problem, and I think developing tools that can be used to help others is sort of why people go into health care," Dr. Cruzen said. "It was really consistent with our mission."</p><p>Open collaboration is something the world's governments and health systems should be striving for during the pandemic, said Michael Dowling, Northwell Health's president and CEO.</p><p>"Whenever you develop anything and somebody else gets it, they improve it and they continue to make it better," Dowling said. "As a country, we lack data. I believe very, very strongly that we should have been and should be now working with other countries, including China, including the European Union, including England and others to figure out how to develop a health surveillance system so you can anticipate way in advance when these things are going to occur."</p><p>In all, Northwell Health has treated more than 112,000 COVID patients. During the pandemic, Dowling said he's seen an outpouring of goodwill, collaboration, and sacrifice from the community and the tens of thousands of staff who work across Northwell.</p><p>"COVID has changed our perspective on everything—and not just those of us in health care, because it has disrupted everybody's life," Dowling said. "It has demonstrated the value of community, how we help one another."</p>
Scientists used CT scanning and 3D-printing technology to re-create the voice of Nesyamun, an ancient Egyptian priest.
- Scientists printed a 3D replica of the vocal tract of Nesyamun, an Egyptian priest whose mummified corpse has been on display in the UK for two centuries.
- With the help of an electronic device, the reproduced voice is able to "speak" a vowel noise.
- The team behind the "Voices of the Past" project suggest reproducing ancient voices could make museum experiences more dynamic.
Howard et al.<p style="margin-left: 20px;">"While this approach has wide implications for heritage management/museum display, its relevance conforms exactly to the ancient Egyptians' fundamental belief that 'to speak the name of the dead is to make them live again'," they wrote in a <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-56316-y#Fig3" target="_blank">paper</a> published in Nature Scientific Reports. "Given Nesyamun's stated desire to have his voice heard in the afterlife in order to live forever, the fulfilment of his beliefs through the synthesis of his vocal function allows us to make direct contact with ancient Egypt by listening to a sound from a vocal tract that has not been heard for over 3000 years, preserved through mummification and now restored through this new technique."</p>
Connecting modern people with history<p>It's not the first time scientists have "re-created" an ancient human's voice. In 2016, for example, Italian researchers used software to <a href="https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/hear-recreated-voice-otzi-iceman-180960570/" target="_blank">reconstruct the voice of Ötzi,</a> an iceman who was discovered in 1991 and is thought to have died more than 5,000 years ago. But the "Voices of the Past" project is different, the researchers note, because Nesyamun's mummified corpse is especially well preserved.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"It was particularly suited, given its age and preservation [of its soft tissues], which is unusual," Howard told <em><a href="https://www.livescience.com/amp/ancient-egypt-mummy-voice-reconstructed.html" target="_blank">Live Science</a>.</em></p><p>As to whether Nesyamun's reconstructed voice will ever be able to speak complete sentences, Howard told <em><a href="https://abcnews.go.com/Weird/wireStory/ancient-voice-scientists-recreate-sound-egyptian-mummy-68482015" target="_blank">The Associated Press</a>, </em>that it's "something that is being worked on, so it will be possible one day."</p><p>John Schofield, an archaeologist at the University of York, said that reproducing voices from history can make museum experiences "more multidimensional."</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"There is nothing more personal than someone's voice," he told <em>The Associated Press.</em> "So we think that hearing a voice from so long ago will be an unforgettable experience, making heritage places like Karnak, Nesyamun's temple, come alive."</p>
A new study proposes mysterious axions may be found in X-rays coming from a cluster of neutron stars.
Are Axions Dark Matter?<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="5e35ce24a5b17102bfce5ae6aecc7c14"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/e7yXqF32Yvw?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
New research suggests you can't fake your emotional state to improve your work life — you have to feel it.
What is deep acting?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTQ1NDk2OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxNTY5MzA0Nn0._s7aP25Es1CInq51pbzGrUj3GtOIRWBHZxCBFnbyXY8/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=333%2C-1%2C333%2C-1&height=700" id="ddf09" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9dc42c4d6a8e372ad7b72907b46ecd3f" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-width="1245" data-height="700" />
Arlie Russell Hochschild (pictured) laid out the concept of emotional labor in her 1983 book, "The Managed Heart."
Credit: Wikimedia Commons<p>Deep and surface acting are the principal components of emotional labor, a buzz phrase you have likely seen flitting about the Twittersphere. Today, "<a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcthree/article/5ea9f140-f722-4214-bb57-8b84f9418a7e" target="_blank">emotional labor</a>" has been adopted by groups as diverse as family counselors, academic feminists, and corporate CEOs, and each has redefined it with a patented spin. But while the phrase has splintered into a smorgasbord of pop-psychological arguments, its initial usage was more specific.</p><p>First coined by sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in her 1983 book, "<a href="https://www.ucpress.edu/book/9780520272941/the-managed-heart" target="_blank">The Managed Heart</a>," emotional labor describes the work we do to regulate our emotions on the job. Hochschild's go-to example is the flight attendant, who is tasked with being "nicer than natural" to enhance the customer experience. While at work, flight attendants are expected to smile and be exceedingly helpful even if they are wrestling with personal issues, the passengers are rude, and that one kid just upchucked down the center aisle. Hochschild's counterpart to the flight attendant is the bill collector, who must instead be "nastier than natural."</p><p>Such personas may serve an organization's mission or commercial interests, but if they cause emotional dissonance, they can potentially lead to high emotional costs for the employee—bringing us back to deep and surface acting.</p><p>Deep acting is the process by which people modify their emotions to match their expected role. Deep actors still encounter the negative emotions, but they devise ways to <a href="http://www.selfinjury.bctr.cornell.edu/perch/resources/what-is-emotion-regulationsinfo-brief.pdf" target="_blank">regulate those emotions</a> and return to the desired state. Flight attendants may modify their internal state by talking through harsh emotions (say, with a coworker), focusing on life's benefits (next stop Paris!), physically expressing their desired emotion (smiling and deep breaths), or recontextualizing an inauspicious situation (not the kid's fault he got sick).</p><p>Conversely, surface acting occurs when employees display ersatz emotions to match those expected by their role. These actors are the waiters who smile despite being crushed by the stress of a dinner rush. They are the CEOs who wear a confident swagger despite feelings of inauthenticity. And they are the bouncers who must maintain a steely edge despite humming show tunes in their heart of hearts.</p><p>As we'll see in the research, surface acting can degrade our mental well-being. This deterioration can be especially true of people who must contend with negative emotions or situations inside while displaying an elated mood outside. Hochschild argues such emotional labor can lead to exhaustion and self-estrangement—that is, surface actors erect a bulwark against anger, fear, and stress, but that disconnect estranges them from the emotions that allow them to connect with others and live fulfilling lives.</p>
Don't fake it till you make it<p>Most studies on emotional labor have focused on customer service for the obvious reason that such jobs prescribe emotional states—service with a smile or, if you're in the bouncing business, a scowl. But <a href="https://eller.arizona.edu/people/allison-s-gabriel" target="_blank">Allison Gabriel</a>, associate professor of management and organizations at the University of Arizona's Eller College of Management, wanted to explore how employees used emotional labor strategies in their intra-office interactions and which strategies proved most beneficial.</p><p>"What we wanted to know is whether people choose to engage in emotion regulation when interacting with their co-workers, why they choose to regulate their emotions if there is no formal rule requiring them to do so, and what benefits, if any, they get out of this effort," Gabriel said in <a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200117162703.htm" target="_blank">a press release</a>.</p><p>Across three studies, she and her colleagues surveyed more than 2,500 full-time employees on their emotional regulation with coworkers. The survey asked participants to agree or disagree with statements such as "I try to experience the emotions that I show to my coworkers" or "I fake a good mood when interacting with my coworkers." Other statements gauged the outcomes of such strategies—for example, "I feel emotionally drained at work." Participants were drawn from industries as varied as education, engineering, and financial services.</p><p>The results, <a href="https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fapl0000473" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">published in the Journal of Applied Psychology</a>, revealed four different emotional strategies. "Deep actors" engaged in high levels of deep acting; "low actors" leaned more heavily on surface acting. Meanwhile, "non-actors" engaged in negligible amounts of emotional labor, while "regulators" switched between both. The survey also revealed two drivers for such strategies: prosocial and impression management motives. The former aimed to cultivate positive relationships, the latter to present a positive front.</p><p>The researchers found deep actors were driven by prosocial motives and enjoyed advantages from their strategy of choice. These actors reported lower levels of fatigue, fewer feelings of inauthenticity, improved coworker trust, and advanced progress toward career goals. </p><p>As Gabriel told <a href="https://www.psypost.org/2021/01/new-psychology-research-suggests-deep-acting-can-reduce-fatigue-and-improve-your-work-life-59081" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">PsyPost in an interview</a>: "So, it's a win-win-win in terms of feeling good, performing well, and having positive coworker interactions."</p><p>Non-actors did not report the emotional exhaustion of their low-actor peers, but they also didn't enjoy the social gains of the deep actors. Finally, the regulators showed that the flip-flopping between surface and deep acting drained emotional reserves and strained office relationships.</p><p>"I think the 'fake it until you make it' idea suggests a survival tactic at work," Gabriel noted. "Maybe plastering on a smile to simply get out of an interaction is easier in the short run, but long term, it will undermine efforts to improve your health and the relationships you have at work. </p><p>"It all boils down to, 'Let's be nice to each other.' Not only will people feel better, but people's performance and social relationships can also improve."</p>
You'll be glad ya' decided to smile<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="88a0a6a8d1c1abfcf7b1aca8e71247c6"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/QOSgpq9EGSw?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>But as with any research that relies on self-reported data, there are confounders here to untangle. Even during anonymous studies, participants may select socially acceptable answers over honest ones. They may further interpret their goal progress and coworker interactions more favorably than is accurate. And certain work conditions may not produce the same effects, such as toxic work environments or those that require employees to project negative emotions.</p><p>There also remains the question of the causal mechanism. If surface acting—or switching between surface and deep acting—is more mentally taxing than genuinely feeling an emotion, then what physiological process causes this fatigue? <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2019.00151/full" target="_blank">One study published in the <em>Frontiers in Human Neuroscience</em></a><em> </em>measured hemoglobin density in participants' brains using an fNIRS while they expressed emotions facially. The researchers found no significant difference in energy consumed in the prefrontal cortex by those asked to deep act or surface act (though, this study too is limited by a lack of real-life task).<br></p><p>With that said, Gabriel's studies reinforce much of the current research on emotional labor. <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2041386611417746" target="_blank">A 2011 meta-analysis</a> found that "discordant emotional labor states" (read: surface acting) were associated with harmful effects on well-being and performance. The analysis found no such consequences for deep acting. <a href="https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0022876" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Another meta-analysis</a> found an association between surface acting and impaired well-being, job attitudes, and performance outcomes. Conversely, deep acting was associated with improved emotional performance.</p><p>So, although there's still much to learn on the emotional labor front, it seems Van Dyke's advice to a Leigh was half correct. We should put on a happy face, but it will <a href="https://bigthink.com/design-for-good/everything-you-should-know-about-happiness-in-one-infographic" target="_self">only help if we can feel it</a>.</p>
Archaeologists discover a cave painting of a wild pig that is now the world's oldest dated work of representational art.