from the world's big
Why do you feel the way you feel, think the way you think and behave the way you do? Here are 5 possible explanations.
- Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior, but did you know there are actually 5 different perspectives to psychology?
- The earliest study of human psychology can be traced back to 400-500 BC.
- The biological approach, the psychodynamic approach, the behavioral approach, the cognitive approach, and the humanistic approach offer valid yet opposing ideas on why humans behave the way we do.
Psychology’s five major perspectives: Why are you the way you are?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzQzODg2Mi9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0ODYyMTA2N30.CnprLD3xGl-3B8YMoRcvUWo3-oVrBOaswSS5-pbiPSU/img.jpg?width=980" id="54fa4" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="4037c7547a1c937b9895d0699d14459c" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-tablet-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzQzODg2Mi9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0ODYyMTA2N30.CnprLD3xGl-3B8YMoRcvUWo3-oVrBOaswSS5-pbiPSU/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C440%2C0%2C441&height=700" alt="concept of psychology five approaches to human psychology" />
There are five approaches to human psychology - which one do you trust most?
Image by FGC on Shutterstock<p>The study of psychology has progressed greatly, thanks to Wundt and other pioneers. Over the years, psychologists began to study all aspects of human behavior from personality traits to brain functions. Eventually, the studies began to look at the same human behaviors from various angles including biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic perspectives. These became known as the "five major perspectives" in psychology.</p><p><strong>The biological approach</strong></p><p>The biological approach to psychology focuses on examining our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from a strictly biological point of view. In this approach, all thoughts, feelings, and behaviors would have a biological cause. </p><p>This approach is relevant to the study of psychology in three ways: </p><ol><li>Comparative method: different species of animals can be studied and then compared to each other. This helps us better understand human behavior. </li><li>Physiology: the study of how the nervous system and hormones work, how the brain functions, how changes in the structure and/or function can affect our behavior. For example, how prescribed drugs to treat depression can affect our behavior through their interaction with the nervous system. </li><li>Investigation of inheritance: the study of what we inherit from our parents (through genetics). For example, whether high intelligence is inherited from one generation to the next. </li></ol><p>Each of these is inherently important to how we study human psychology from a biological point of view, and it's suggested that behavior can be <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/biological-psychology.html#:~:text=The%20biological%20approach%20believes%20us,thus%20physical%20point%20of%20view.&text=All%20thoughts%2C%20feeling%20%26%20behavior%20ultimately%20have%20a%20biological%20cause." target="_blank">largely explained through biology</a>. </p><p><strong>The psychodynamic approach</strong></p><p>The psychodynamic approach to psychology is most well-known for its ties to Sigmund Freud and his followers. This approach includes all theories in psychology that see humans functioning based on the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious and between the different structures of the personality. </p><p>Freud developed a collection of theories (most of which were based on what his patients told him during therapy) that formed the basis of the psychodynamic approach. </p><p>The <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html#:~:text=The%20psychodynamic%20approach%20includes%20all,different%20structures%20of%20the%20personality.&text=Freud's%20psychoanalysis%20is%20both%20a%20theory%20and%20therapy." target="_blank">psychodynamic approach</a> can be best described in basic assumptions that: </p><ol><li>Our behavior and feelings are powerfully affected by unconscious motives. </li><li>Our behavior and feelings as adults are rooted in childhood experiences. </li><li>All behavior has a cause, and that cause is usually an unconscious one.</li><li>Personality is made of three parts (ID, ego, and super-ego).</li></ol><p><strong>The behavioral approach</strong></p><p>The <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html#:~:text=Behaviorism%20refers%20to%20a%20psychological,through%20interaction%20with%20the%20environment." target="_blank">behavioral approach to psychology</a> focuses on how one's environment and external stimuli impact a person's mental states and development. More importantly, it focuses on how these factors specifically "train" us for the behaviors we exhibit later on. </p><p>People who support this approach to psychology over others may believe that the concept of "free will" is an illusion because all behaviors are learned and based on our past experiences. In other words, that we've been conditioned to act the way we act so nothing is ever truly our own choice. </p><p><strong>The cognitive approach</strong></p><p>The <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive.html" target="_blank">cognitive approach to psychology</a> shifts away from conditioned behavior and psychoanalytical notions to the study of how our mind works, how we process information, and how we use that processed information to drive our behaviors. </p><p>This approach focuses on: </p><ol><li>The meditational processes that occur between the stimulus and our response to the stimulus. </li><li>Human beings are information processors and all learning is based on the relationships we form with various stimuli. </li><li>Internal mental behavior can be scientifically studied using experiments that show us how we react to certain stimuli. </li></ol><p>In other words, the cognitive approach focuses on how our brains react to the environment around us and how our cognitive brain has very specific ways of processing certain stimuli which can explain why we think, feel and behave in certain ways. </p><p><strong>The humanistic approach </strong></p><p>The <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/humanistic.html" target="_blank">humanistic approach to psychology</a> was considered something of a rebellion against what psychologists saw as the limitations of the behaviorist and psychodynamic theories of psychology. It's the idea that we should approach psychological studies uniquely for each individual because we are all so vastly different. </p><p>This approach focuses on: </p><ol><li>The idea that we all have free will. </li><li>The idea that people are all basically good and that we have an innate need to make ourselves and the world better. </li><li>That we are motivated to self-actualize, grow, and thrive. </li><li>That our experiences are what drive us. </li></ol><p>This approach puts emphasis on the uniqueness of every person and every situation, suggesting that the other studies can never be fully accurate as there is such a wide range of thoughts, feelings, and human behaviors that can adapt and change as we do. </p>
Human brains evolved for creativity. We just have to learn how to access it.
- An all-star cast of Big Thinkers—actors Rainn Wilson and Ethan Hawke; composer Anthony Brandt; neuroscientists David Eagleman, Wendy Suzuki, and Beau Lotto; and psychologist Scott Barry Kaufman—share how they define creativity and explain how our brains uniquely evolved for the phenomenon.
- According to Eagleman, during evolution there was an increase in space between our brain's input and output that allows information more time to percolate. We also grew a larger prefrontal cortex which "allows us to simulate what ifs, to separate ourselves from our location in space and time and think about possibilities."
- Scott Barry Kaufman details 3 brain networks involved in creative thinking, and Wendy Suzuki busts the famous left-brain, right-brain myth.
According to a licensed clinical psychologist, we need to change the way we define narcissism in order to recognize it more clearly for what it really is.
- Narcissistic personality disorder is one of several types of personality disorders. It is characterized as a mental condition in which people have an inflated sense of self.
- According to the most recent data, narcissistic personality disorder isn't as common as we think, impacting an estimated 1 percent of our population. The confusion lies in how we define the disorder compared to other narcissistic personality traits.
- Dr. Ramani Durvasula explains that we need a clearer definition of what this disorder is in order to recognize it in our society.
What is narcissism?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzQyNTQwMC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzMjMwNzcwNX0.lQ8BR0I_yDSXNRrryTyKzBrJIA6_d371CHomBWnnQqw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C0%2C0%2C0&height=700" id="c9537" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="1ee04679e2605a285c5b5b56b782e3d0" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="concept of ego self praise narcissism narcissistic personality disorder" />
How do we really recognize narcissism?
Image by SvetaZi on Shutterstock<p><a href="https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/narcissistic-personality-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20366662#:~:text=Narcissistic%20personality%20disorder%20%E2%80%94%20one%20of,lack%20of%20empathy%20for%20others." target="_blank">Narcissistic personality disorder</a> is one of several types of personality disorders and is characterized as a mental condition in which people have an inflated sense of self. They have a deep need for excessive attention and admiration, which often leads to troubled relationships. There is an inherent lack of empathy for others and narcissism, despite its outward appearance, is often masking extremely fragile self-esteem constructs.</p><p><strong>Symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder: </strong></p><ul><li>An exaggerated sense of self-importance </li><li>A sense of entitlement</li><li>Craving constant admiration or affection</li><li>Expecting to be recognized as a superior</li><li>An ability to monopolize conversations and belittle other people's input </li><li>Can easily become envious of others and believe others envy them</li><li>They may behave arrogantly and appear to be conceited, boastful or pretentious </li><li>Often insists on having "the best" of everything, which will be reflected in their possessions, even if they are things they cannot afford (a new car, etc) </li></ul><p>Narcissism itself is defined as an excessive interest in or admiration of oneself. It's entirely possible to be narcissistic without having the personality disorder...but what is the difference?<br></p><p>With narcissistic personality disorder, the traits and symptoms will be so intense that the person's life, relationships, and jobs may be compromised. A personality disorder is typically diagnosed with the issues extend to negatively <a href="https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/qa/can-someone-be-a-narcissist-and-not-have-narcissistic-personality-disorder#:~:text=Someone%20can%20be%20a%20narcissist,it%20disrupts%20his%20daily%20life." target="_blank">impact your daily life</a>. </p>
The psychology of narcissistic personality disorder<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="56179ba5cb00b2a7d444605f4b976b68"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/WjuGnzbY_hY?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>As <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/communication-success/201908/difference-between-narcissist-vs-narcissistic-behavior" target="_blank">Psychology Today</a> author Preston Ni points out, there is a difference between someone with narcissistic personality disorder and someone who is exhibiting narcissistic behaviors - with the biggest difference lying in the intent.</p><p>A pathological narcissist will often purposefully induce toxic environments and harmful relationships for the purpose of exploiting other people to serve their own agendas. Someone who is considered to have the personality disorder may be caught in frequent lies or exaggerations that make them look good and others look bad, they may manipulate situations for their own gratification, they may also spread negative emotions in order to make themselves feel better. </p><p>While you may think narcissism is common, narcissistic personality disorder only affects <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/basics/narcissism" target="_blank">an estimated</a> 1 percent of the population. </p><p>Narcissism is properly viewed on a spectrum, as with most other mental health conditions. To be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder, a person is evaluated with the <a href="https://openpsychometrics.org/tests/NPI/" target="_blank">Narcissistic Personality Inventory</a> (NPI-40). The test consists of 40 pairs of statements to which the person will need to select whichever answer best suits their personality. </p><p><strong>Do narcissists know they are narcissists? </strong></p><p>Using something called a <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/basics/narcissism" target="_blank">Single-Item Narcissism Scale</a>, people who answered affirmatively to the question "are you a narcissist?" were far more likely than others to score highly on the NPI-40. </p><p><strong>Narcissism in relationships</strong></p><p>While you may think someone in your life (perhaps maybe even someone close to you) is a narcissist, it is actually quite difficult for people with narcissistic personality disorder to truly fall in love, because there is an inherent deficit of empathy makes it difficult for them to establish long-term, healthy relationships. </p><p>Psychology Today explains: "For most narcissists, relationships are transactional. They provide positive attention and sexual satisfaction to bolster their ego and self-esteem. The objective [of the relationship] is to enjoy uncommitted pleasure and most individuals struggling with this disorder will begin to lose interest in the relationship as the expectation for commitment and intimacy grows." </p><p><strong>Changing our view on what narcissism really is. </strong></p><p>According to <a href="https://www.apa.org/research/action/speaking-of-psychology/narcissism" target="_blank">Dr. Ramani Durvasula</a>, a clinical psychologist in Santa Monica, California, narcissism is not just posting selfies on social media or checking your reflection in every surface. While those things can be viewed as narcissistic tendencies, they do not mean the person is a narcissist. </p><p>According to Durvasula, narcissism is woefully misunderstood, which is maybe why we have such a hard time spotting it in people around us. She considers it a "buzz word" of our time, explaining that it's viewed as a disorder of some kind of inflated self-esteem and grandiosity, and while it is those things, it's most importantly a disorder of self-esteem. </p><p>"I often say there are four pillars to narcissism: lack of empathy, grandiosity, a chronic sense of entitlement, and a chronic need to seek out admiration and validation. Those really create the core of the disorder." </p>
If you're interested in reinvention and adaptability, turns out Italian cooking is an instruction manual for life.
Higher education faces challenges that are unlike any other industry. What path will ASU, and universities like ASU, take in a post-COVID world?
- Everywhere you turn, the idea that coronavirus has brought on a "new normal" is present and true. But for higher education, COVID-19 exposes a long list of pernicious old problems more than it presents new problems.
- It was widely known, yet ignored, that digital instruction must be embraced. When combined with traditional, in-person teaching, it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale.
- COVID-19 has forced institutions to understand that far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted.
What conditions of the new normal were already appreciated widely?<p>First, we understand that higher education is unique among industries. Some industries are governed by markets. Others are run by governments. Most operate under the influence of both markets and governments. And then there's higher education. Higher education as an "industry" involves public, private, and for-profit universities operating at small, medium, large, and now massive scales. Some higher education industry actors are intense specialists; others are adept generalists. Some are fantastically wealthy; others are tragically poor. Some are embedded in large cities; others are carefully situated near farms and frontiers.</p> <p>These differences demonstrate just some of the complexities that shape higher education. Still, we understand that change in the industry is underway, and we must be active in directing it. Yet because of higher education's unique (and sometimes vexing) operational and structural conditions, many of the lessons from change management and the science of industrial transformation are only applicable in limited or highly modified ways. For evidence of this, one can look at various perspectives, including those that we have offered, on such topics as <a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/blogs/rethinking-higher-education/lessons-disruption" target="_blank">disruption</a>, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/20/education/learning/education-technology.html" target="_blank">technology management</a>, and so-called "<a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/media/Excerpt_IHESpecialReport_Growing-Role-of-Mergers-in-Higher-Ed.pdf" target="_blank">mergers and acquisitions</a>" in higher education. In each of these spaces, the "market forces" and "market rules" for higher education are different than they are in business, or even in government. This has always been the case and it is made more obvious by COVID-19.</p> <p>Second, with so much excitement about innovation in higher education, we sometimes lose sight of the fact that students are—and should remain—the core cause for innovation. Higher education's capacity to absorb new ideas is strong. But the ideas that endure are those designed to benefit students, and therefore society. This is important to remember because not all innovations are designed with students in mind. The recent history of innovation in higher education includes several cautionary tales of what can happen when institutional interests—or worse, <a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/02/09/apollos-new-owners-seek-fresh-start-beleaguered-company" target="_blank">shareholder</a> interests—are placed above student well-being.</p>
Photo: Getty Images<p>Third, it is abundantly apparent that universities must leverage technology to increase educational quality and access. The rapid shift to delivering an education that complies with social distancing guidelines speaks volumes about the adaptability of higher education institutions, but this transition has also posed unique difficulties for colleges and universities that had been slow to adopt digital education. The last decade has shown that online education, implemented effectively, can meet or even surpass the quality of in-person <a href="https://link-springer-com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/article/10.1007/s10639-019-10027-z" target="_blank">instruction</a>.</p><p>Digital instruction, broadly defined, leverages online capabilities and integrates adaptive learning methodologies, predictive analytics, and innovations in instructional design to enable increased student engagement, personalized learning experiences, and improved learning outcomes. The ability of these technologies to transcend geographic barriers and to shrink the marginal cost of educating additional students makes them essential for delivering education at scale.</p><p>As a bonus, and it is no small thing given that they are the core cause for innovation, students embrace and enjoy digital instruction. It is their preference to learn in a format that leverages technology. This should not be a surprise; it is now how we live in all facets of life.</p><p>Still, we have only barely begun to conceive of the impact digital education will have. For example, emerging virtual and augmented reality technologies that facilitate interactive, hands-on learning will transform the way that learners acquire and apply new knowledge. Technology-enabled learning cannot replace the traditional college experience or ensure the survival of any specific college, but it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale. This has always been the case, and it is made more obvious by COVID-19.</p>
What conditions of the new normal were emerging suspicions?<p>Our collective thinking about the role of institutional or university-to-university collaboration and networking has benefitted from a new clarity in light of COVID-19. We now recognize more than ever that colleges and universities must work together to ensure that the American higher education system is resilient and sufficiently robust to meet the needs of students and their families.</p> <p>In recent weeks, various commentators have suggested that higher education will face a wave of institutional <a href="https://www.businessinsider.com/scott-galloway-predicts-colleges-will-close-due-to-pandemic-2020-5" target="_blank">closures</a> and consolidations and that large institutions with significant online instruction capacity will become dominant.</p> <p>While ASU is the largest public university in the United States by enrollment and among the most well-equipped in online education, we strongly oppose "let them fail" mindsets. The strength of American higher education relies on its institutional diversity, and on the ability of colleges and universities to meet the needs of their local communities and educate local students. The needs of learners are highly individualized, demanding a wide range of options to accommodate the aspirations and learning styles of every kind of student. Education will become less relevant and meaningful to students, and less responsive to local needs, if institutions of higher learning are allowed to fail. </p> <p>Preventing this outcome demands that colleges and universities work together to establish greater capacity for remote, distributed education. This will help institutions with fewer resources adapt to our new normal and continue to fulfill their mission of serving students, their families, and their communities. Many had suspected that collaboration and networking were preferable over letting vulnerable colleges fail. COVID-19's new normal seems to be confirming this.</p>
President Barack Obama delivers the commencement address during the Arizona State University graduation ceremony at Sun Devil Stadium May 13, 2009 in Tempe, Arizona. Over 65,000 people attended the graduation.
Photo by Joshua Lott/Getty Images<p>A second condition of the new normal that many had suspected to be true in recent years is the limited role that any one university or type of university can play as an exemplar to universities more broadly. For decades, the evolution of higher education has been shaped by the widespread imitation of a small number of elite universities. Most public research universities could benefit from replicating Berkeley or Michigan. Most small private colleges did well by replicating Williams or Swarthmore. And all universities paid close attention to Harvard, Princeton, MIT, Stanford, and Yale. It is not an exaggeration to say that the logic of replication has guided the evolution of higher education for centuries, both in the US and abroad.</p><p>Only recently have we been able to move beyond replication to new strategies of change, and COVID-19 has confirmed the legitimacy of doing so. For example, cases such as <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2020/03/10/harvard-moves-classes-online-advises-students-stay-home-after-spring-break-response-covid-19/" target="_blank">Harvard's</a> eviction of students over the course of less than one week or <a href="https://www.nhregister.com/news/coronavirus/article/Mayor-New-Haven-asks-for-coronavirus-help-Yale-15162606.php" target="_blank">Yale's apparent reluctance</a> to work with the city of New Haven, highlight that even higher education's legacy gold standards have limits and weaknesses. We are hopeful that the new normal will include a more active and earnest recognition that we need many types of universities. We think the new normal invites us to rethink the very nature of "gold standards" for higher education.</p>
A graduate student protests MIT's rejection of some evacuation exemption requests.
Photo: Maddie Meyer/Getty Images<p>Finally, and perhaps most importantly, we had started to suspect and now understand that America's colleges and universities are among the many institutions of democracy and civil society that are, by their very design, incapable of being sufficiently responsive to the full spectrum of modern challenges and opportunities they face. Far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted. And without new designs, we can expect postsecondary success for these same students to be as elusive in the new normal, as it was in the <a href="http://pellinstitute.org/indicators/reports_2019.shtml" target="_blank">old normal</a>. This is not just because some universities fail to sufficiently recognize and engage the promise of diversity, this is because few universities have been designed from the outset to effectively serve the unique needs of lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color.</p>