from the world's big
Time travel is possible, but only in one direction.
- We typically think of events as happening in space and in time. "In reality, space and time are strongly intertwined things and the union of them is called spacetime," explains Konstantin Batygin.
- The force that we understand as gravity, according to Batygin, is the result of the spacetime continuum being curved by Earth's gravitational field. Depending on how close you are to the source of gravity, time will pass at different rates.
- Traveling backward in time is not possible. Traveling forward through time without aging, however, would require going to the center of the planet where the effects of that gravitational field can't be experienced.
How to manage your time so you can actually accomplish what you want to.
- In a world that's always online, it's easy to feel like we have insufficient time for ourselves, or to spend with our families and loved ones.
- Working out what you need to get done each day, and how long it will take, will allow you to create priorities on which you can focus your available time.
- If you find the traditional methods of mindfulness meditation too difficult, then meditative practices such as yoga or even running can also be extremely beneficial.
1. Make sure you get enough sleep<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzM3MTg0MS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0MjAxNjUzMX0.KNPZu49AuY_XRC2Y9YPzfu51aETqnkwtffwsWxuWwEw/img.jpg?width=980" id="29aa1" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="59dc103a5cf65eb7424bc834a9e5623d" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
2. Don’t let chaos control you<p>Hiten Shah, co-founder of document management software company <a href="https://usefyi.com/" target="_blank">FYI</a>, has an anecdote about a friend who was asked by his boss to pull up a document while in the middle of a meeting. The friend started frantically scouring his hard drive, Google Docs and email attachments to try and locate the document.</p> <p>All the while, the boss was sitting there, becoming more and more impatient, as Shah's friend was getting more and more flustered and embarrassed, which of course made it even harder for him to find the missing file. "Finally, out of cosmic mercy, someone sends him the document," <a href="https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/so-much-trouble-caused-singledocument-hiten-shah/" target="_blank">Shah writes</a>. "But my friend didn't feel relief at that point, he felt anxious."</p> <p>It's a cautionary tale, to be sure. Truth be told, we've probably all had one of those moments. But if your day has become an endless cycle of looking for documents, trying to find your keys, and wondering where you put shoes when you took them off last night, then you'll benefit from getting organized. </p> <p>This may mean using a document management system or simply creating a designated space for everyday objects. Doing so will mean you free up all that time spent looking for missing things and reduce your overall stress levels. </p>
3. Schedule your time – but don’t overdo it<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzM3MTgyNy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxNzk3MzI5NH0.m6UwVQt7yIwlSA1aUaTp8VVBpwk8I6VKURl539fq_yk/img.jpg?width=980" id="1f1ee" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="1f27587af6edb24da97c3c3550cb778e" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
4. Get more comfortable with saying no<p>Once you have a daily or weekly list of priorities, it becomes easier to learn how to say no. If what's being requested of you doesn't somehow make it easier to achieve your mission-critical tasks, then you'll find it easier to politely decline. In the <a href="https://thriveglobal.com/stories/say-no-more-often-warren-buffett/" target="_blank">words</a> of Warren Buffet, "Successful people say no to almost everything."</p> <p>One easy way to start saying "no" is to switch off your phone alerts. Constant notifications can be <a href="https://bigthink.com/videos/distraction" target="_self">a powerful distraction</a> from achieving your goals. When we switch between tasks, it can <a href="https://www.ics.uci.edu/~gmark/chi08-mark.pdf" target="_blank">take around 23 minutes</a> to get focused again. Unless your job involves managing social media accounts, chances are you don't need to be notified about the latest like on a Facebook picture. </p> <p>Similarly, if you confine checking emails to scheduled slots each day, you can dedicate your productive time to working on your priorities. </p>
5. Use the help immediately available to you<p>If it's not possible to say no to a particular task or request, then perhaps it's possible to simply have someone else do it instead.</p><p>In his book, "<a href="https://simonsinek.com/find-your-why/" target="_blank">Find Your Why</a>," Simon Sinek writes that truly knowing yourself is the key to a sense of purpose. "When we focus on our strengths and lean in to the strengths of others," he writes of collaboration and delegation, "we can make the impossible possible."</p><p>Many people believe they have to do everything themselves to be successful. But a failure to leverage the help around you can lead to overload and fatigue. If you're in a position to delegate or outsource tasks, then do so whenever you have the opportunity. </p>
6. Create some space for your head<p>According to a survey <a href="https://open.buffer.com/4-day-workweek/" target="_blank">conducted by Buffer</a>, 41 percent of workers believe that their biggest barriers to self or family care are feeling distracted and anxious. Feeling starved of time only makes it harder to be fully present doing whatever you're doing at a given moment, adding fuel to these negative emotions.</p><p>In a similar way to getting more sleep, it may seem difficult to make time for meditation if you're starting to feel overwhelmed. But <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/12-benefits-of-meditation#section2" target="_blank">studies have shown</a> that meditation has multiple positive health benefits, including reducing stress, controlling anxiety and lengthening attention span. </p><p>If you find the traditional methods of mindfulness meditation too difficult, then meditative practices such as yoga or even running can also be extremely beneficial. </p>
Let the feast begin<p>Time famine is a problem from which many of us suffer. But these few simple habits and practices can help to alleviate the feeling of overwhelm and increase productivity. </p> <p>There may only be 24 hours in each day, but directing them into the right activities and priorities helps to cultivate a sense that time is a more abundant resource.</p>
But wait: Time runs backward there. Other physicists are not convinced.
- NASA's ANITA observatory searches for neutrinos traveling with cosmic rays as they arrive on, and crash into, Earth.
- ANITA detected high-energy particles that seemed to be coming out of the Earth, which isn't supposed to be possible.
- After years of inconclusive hypotheses, the ANITA team published a paper claiming the particles reveal a parallel universe where time runs backwards.
An Antarctic particle-observation experiment conducted in Antarctica in 2016 has produced what its scientists say may be evidence of a second universe parallel to ours, an anti-universe in which time runs backwards. On the other hand, maybe not. While there's little doubt about what the searchers saw, nobody has quite figured out what it was, and some imply the parallel-universe idea may be as much an expression of frustration over the unresolved mystery as a serious hypothesis.
Here's what happened
ANITA getting ready
Image source: Balloon Program Office/NASA
Ever since Austrian physicist Victor Hess realized that cosmic rays were bombarding the Earth from above in 1912, scientists have sought out ways in which they can be detected and studied without the distortion introduced by Earth's magnetic field. Fortunately, cosmic rays are accompanied by a detectable beacon: neutrinos, and neutrinos don't care about magnetic fields — they travel in a simple straight line.
Antarctica presents an interesting opportunity to learn about cosmic waves. When low-energy neutrinos hit the ground ice there, they pass right through along with their cosmic-ray partners. However, high-energy neutrinos, such as those that accompany cosmic rays, can't pass through and crash into the ice, producing a shower of charged particles.
NASA's Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) is designed to detect and measure these bursts, allowing scientists to figure out a neutrino's trajectory, and thus its source and that of its accompanying cosmic ray. ANITA is a collection of antennas sent aloft in a large balloon some 1-4 kilometers above McMurdo Base in Antarctica. It's made three month-long flights so far, hunting for signs of neutrino impacts over a million square kilometers of ice, but the only thing ANITA detected are what seemed to be bursts of background noise.
However, as disappointed scientists waited on the surface during ANITA's third flight, they decided to go over the data from the first two missions one more time to see if there was anything they missed. The researchers found, in what they'd previously assumed to be noise, the signature of a strangely high-energy particle, with a charge of 0.6 and 0.56 exaelectronvolts (a billion billion electronvolts).
The particle's trajectory is what made no sense: It apparently didn't come down from space — it was exploding outward from underneath the ice. Since high-energy particles can't pass through the Earth, ANITA's observation has puzzled the physics community for the last couple of years. (Since that time, three other similar particles have been observed by ANITA.)
In March, since no definitive explanation has yet been put forward, experimental particle physicist Peter Gorham of the University of Hawaii and principle investigator with ANITA and his colleagues provided one. It's a stunner: The paper asserts that ANITA caught a "right-handed neutrino." The detection of such a particle would signify the presence of an anti-universe. In this scenario, the particle's direction would be explained as a reversed-in-time arrival of the particle on Earth from space.
Just a sec, or anti-sec...
Image source: NASA
"Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence." — Carl Sagan
In the case of the hypothesis proposed ANITA's team, theirs is more a matter of an extraordinary lack of proof in the form of convincing explanations that would be justify an extraordinary claim. Sagan would likely be unimpressed.
"We are absolutely sure that there is new physics out there to be found," radio Astronomer Clancy James tells Jackson Ryan at c/net, explaining why it's not shocking that physicists can't explain the four reported observations detailed in the team's paper. Even so, astrophysicist Geraint Lewis point out, "There are a number of potential candidate particles that could account for the results from ANITA." There is also a theory that the geomagnetic current in the Antarctic ice distorts particle trajectories, potentially producing a head-scratching detection such a ANITA's.
It's also true that one approach to an unanswerable question is to think outside of the box. "In such a situation you start exploring even more extreme possibilities," says Ekers.
While astroparticle phenomenologist Pat Scott admits the anti-universe explanation is "plausible" — an interesting word in the mind-blowing arena of physics — he cautions, "There's nothing that necessarily makes it a detection of a parallel universe."
Ron Ekers, of Australia's national space agency, suggests Gorham and his colleagues may just be sick of waiting for another answer: "The unusual ANITA events have been known and discussed since 2016. After four years there has been no satisfactory explanation of the anomalous events seen by ANITA so this is very frustrating, especially to those involved." He suggests the anti-universe idea is "a somewhat cheeky explanation ... born out of the frustration of having nothing else that worked."
Concludes Lewis, "Whilst parallel universes sound exciting and sexy when discussing the ANITA signal, alternative ideas are still on the table."
For now, the reaction of the larger physics community suggests we'll have to take the anti-universe theory with at least a grain of salt and consider ANITA's baffling observations a genuinely intriguing puzzle awaiting a provable solution.
Do space and time really exist? NASA astronomer Michelle Thaller looks at the implications of Einstein's famous equation E=mc2.
- NASA astronomer and science communicator Michelle Thaller explains that the real brilliance of Albert Einstein is that he was able to bridge ideas that appeared to others to be in different realms.
- The thing Einstein is most famous for is the equation E=mc2. Thaller explains why that equation is so mind-blowing: Pure energy and matter are the same thing. That means, as humans, we are both made of matter and of pure energy, and as pure energy, we would not experience space or time.
- "I think that, once we really understand this, we're going to be in for some very difficult truths to accept," says Thaller. "It may be that there is no space or time as we know it, really."
Your morning coffee is good for you - if you drink it at the right time.
- Caffeine, the main stimulant found in coffee, works on a chemical level to give you energy by replacing the biochemical adenosine, which makes you tired.
- There are many health benefits to caffeine, such as a boost in metabolism and an increase in physical performance/muscle strength.
- To get the most positive impacts of your daily caffeine intake, drink coffee between 10 in the morning and 12 noon or between 2 in the afternoon and 5 in the evening.
Your brain on coffee<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="1b7784d7ec18a202dd02c5c97e1499d4"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/4YOwEqGykDM?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p><a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-is-caffeine" target="_blank">Caffeine</a>, the main stimulant in coffee, works on a chemical level to give you a boost of energy. However, caffeine is structurally similar to another chemical naturally created in the body, called <a href="https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1067/adenosine" target="_blank">adenosine</a>, which makes you tired.</p><p>Some substances imitate natural neurotransmitters and can take their place in receptors. For example, morphine can bind to the receptors in the brain meant for your endorphins (which is a natural kind of 'morphine' produced by your brain). </p><p><strong>Caffeine replaces adenosine, which builds your adrenaline and causes dopamine to linger longer.</strong></p><p>Similar to how morphine binds to endorphin receptors, the caffeine in your morning coffee binds to your brain's adenosine receptors, preventing the biochemical from making you tired. </p><p>Caffeine also builds your adrenaline supply which increases your heart rate and allows blood to pump faster. At the same time, caffeine prevents dopamine from being reabsorbed into your system, which allows it to linger in the brain for a longer amount of time, causing you to feel it's positive effects (such as happiness) for a longer amount of time. </p><p>This lingering of dopamine is what often triggers the brain to crave more caffeine. After all, while dopamine itself <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/women-who-stray/201701/no-dopamine-is-not-addictive" target="_blank">isn't inherently addictive</a>, it does play a large role in many addictions. </p><p><strong>More coffee means more adenosine receptors which means more coffee...</strong></p><p>The brain is a complex and intricate system. The more coffee you drink, the more adenosine receptors are formed, meaning it can take more coffee to keep you awake now than it did when you started drinking coffee as a young adult. </p><p><strong>According to<a href="https://www.outsideonline.com/2390099/overdosing-caffeine" target="_blank">research</a>, caffeine has a half-life of around 6 hours. </strong></p><p>Within the first 10 minutes, the caffeine enters your bloodstream and is pumped throughout your body, causing an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. </p><p>Up to 20 minutes after intake, caffeine binds to the adenosine receptors, neutralizing fatigue. Dopamine levels increase and linger, which provides the drinker with an alert and focused feeling. </p><p>Within 30 minutes, your adrenal glands shift into high gear and begin producing more hormones. During this time your vision may become sharper due to your pupils dilating. </p><p>Within 40 minutes, your body begins producing more serotonin, which improves the neuron function within your spinal cord - this leads to improved coordination and muscle strength. </p><p>After 4 hours, your metabolism increases, which is why you burn energy faster. Your body begins to break down stored fats during this time. </p><p>Within 6 hours, the liquid coffee has gone through your system and you will likely feel the urge to urinate, during which time approximately half the caffeine you consumed is expelled. </p>
How to make your coffee habit benefit you<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzIxMTYwMS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYwOTg1MDUzMH0.WurPbO0oMxESAMOAyKVawD9TfwtYQhmmF0VjgWhXX7w/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C72%2C0%2C72&height=700" id="cca79" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="3a409121a158d78aba0b22335d00f702" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="concept of coffee time coffee cup on blank background with clock" />
What time of day you drink your coffee can mean the difference between a good habit and a bad habit.
Photo by bluehand on Shutterstock<p>Of course, with anything caffeinated, moderation is key. When consumed in excess, caffeine can cause anxiety, heart palpitations, and sleeping problems.</p><p>According to <a href="https://www.consumerreports.org/food-safety/too-much-caffeine/" target="_blank">Consumer Reports</a>, up to 400mg of caffeine per day (which equals two to four 8 ounce cups) can be part of a healthy diet, however anything over 600mg per day is too much. </p><p><strong>What are the health benefits of coffee? </strong></p><p>Despite what you may have been told, there are several ways your daily caffeine intake is good for you. Not only can coffee improve your energy levels, but it can cause your brain to function <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/top-13-evidence-based-health-benefits-of-coffee#section1" target="_blank">at optimal levels</a>, making you smarter. </p><p><u>Some other health benefits of coffee include: </u></p><ul><li>Boosting your metabolism</li><li>Improving your physical performance </li><li>Helping you with your nutrient intake (the vitamins B2, B3, B5, manganese, and potassium are all found in coffee)</li><li>Lowering your risk of developing type 2 diabetes</li><li>Helping fight depression symptoms and make you happier </li><li>Providing a source of antioxidants </li></ul><p><strong>Consuming caffeine when cortisol levels are high decreases the health benefits.</strong></p><p><a href="https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-is-cortisol" target="_blank">Cortisol</a>, a naturally-occurring stress hormone, has a very distinct circadian rhythm that is regulated by the brain's central pacemaker. Interrupting this rhythm can lead to metabolic abnormalities, fatigue, and poor quality of life, according to <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19223520" target="_blank">a 2009 study</a> published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. </p><p>Consuming caffeine when your cortisol levels are at a natural peak can lead to interference in the production of cortisol and an increase in your tolerance, which can impact your response to stress and will cause to you need more and more caffeine as time goes on.</p><p><strong>When is the best time to drink coffee?</strong></p><p>The cortisol levels in your body are at a natural peak three times per day, one of which is in the early morning. According to <a href="https://time.com/3903826/coffee-early-morning-worst-time/" target="_blank">this article in Time Magazine</a>, the best times to drink coffee (or ingest caffeine) are between 10 in the morning and 12 noon, and then again between 2 in the afternoon and 5 in the evening. </p><p>This will allow your brain to make the most of your caffeine surge, as it's not replacing any other important functions, such as the cortisol release that naturally happens several times per day. </p>