Experts argue the jaws of an ancient European ape reveal a key human ancestor.
- The jaw bones of an 8-million-year-old ape were discovered at Nikiti, Greece, in the '90s.
- Researchers speculate it could be a previously unknown species and one of humanity's earliest evolutionary ancestors.
- These fossils may change how we view the evolution of our species.
A long-ridiculed theory about humankind's early leap of consciousness is revived.
- Terence McKenna first proposed psychedelic mushrooms as the trigger for our rapid cognitive evolution.
- McKenna's theory was called the "Stoned Ape Hypothesis."
- The hypothesis is being revisited as a possible answer to a vexxing evolutionary riddle.
Big and strong? That's not what makes an alpha male, says primatolgist Frans de Waal.
- The cultural notion of an alpha male as a strong, mean aggressor is rampant but wrong. The reality is more complex.
- Frans de Waal notes two types of alpha males: Bullies and leaders. In chimpanzee society, the former terrorizes the group while the latter mediates conflict.
- The reign of alpha male bullies usually ends poorly in the wild. Chimpanzee bullies get expelled or even killed by their group, while leader alphas are somewhat democratically kept in power, sometimes for as long as 12 years.
Primatologist Frans de Waal explains the primal instinct that unites humans and chimpanzees.
- Humans throw temper tantrums when they feel frustrated, lose power, or sense a threat to their status or security.
- Chimpanzees exhibit the same behavior; alpha male chimps who lose their status throw tantrums to elicit sympathy from their group, hoping to have their power restored.
- But that tactic almost never works, notes primatologist Frans de Waal. An important lesson for humans from chimps.
We are destroying who they are.
- A study finds that human impact is decimating the cultures of chimpanzee communities in the wild.
- Unique localized behaviors are being reduced by 88 percent.
- Socialized learning in chimps has finally been established, just in time to be destroyed.