from the world's big
Scientists make organs transparent so you can see inside
Add some color to the internal structures and you've got some eye-popping imagery.
- By manipulating light refraction in organ tissue, it can be made transparent.
- Coloring internal structures is as "simple" as slipping dyes between tissue cells.
- A new method paves the way for fully 3D imagery of mature human organs.
As science dives deeper into the physiology of human organs, and in particular the human brain, it has become clear that viewing such organs in three dimensions and in microscopic detail is of critical importance if we're ever to understand how they work. Of course, organs are solid, and seeing what's going on inside them has proven a challenge to say the least. Now a new system, the SHANEL method, has been announced. It provides a practical solution for doing just this, and the glimpses it gives us inside the human brain and other harvested organs are stunning.
All of the videos below are by Zhao, et al.
Making tissue transparent
SHANEL addresses two problems. The first is transparency: You can't simply look through the tissue encasing and surrounding the structures we're interested in observing.
Scientists have attempted for some time to explore the brain by slicing it into thin sections. However, reassembling such sections into a 3D model can take years, and the final assemblage is likely to exhibit distortions introduced by the tissue-slicing process.
In the last 10 years or so, scientists have been refining a process called "optical clearing." Its goal is not to remove all the tissue hiding organs' secrets, but to make it transparent.
What causes tissue to be translucent, that is, not transparent, is light scattering. Tissue is made primarily of water surrounded by lipids and proteins, all of which refract light to different degrees. Using a refractive index (RI), for example, water has an RI of 1.33, proteins more than 1.44, and lipids more than 1.45. Together, light bouncing around these components render the tissue translucent.
Various optical cleaning methods have been developed that remove, modify, or replace tissue components using either solvents or water-based methods to normalize their RI values and "clear" the tissue in preparation for microscopy.
While progress has been made in clearing rodent organs and human embryos, say the developers of SHANEL, "Adult human organs are particularly challenging for this approach, owing to the accumulation of dense and sturdy molecules in decades-aged human tissues." In their announcement they report a case in which clearing even an 8 mm-thick slice of human brain took 10 months to clear, and another where 3.5 months were required to clear just a 5 mm-thick human striatum sample. Clearing entire organs or larger segments of them has been out of the question.
SHANEL stands for "Small-micelle-mediated Human orgAN Efficient clearing and Labeling," (we'll get to the labeling in a moment.) It uses a new, small micelle — a detergent aggregate of surfactant molecules in a liquid colloid — that can permeate centimeters-thick mammalian organs and clear them. A key ingredient of it is the zwitterionic detergent known as CHAPS. CHAPS' unusual chemistry contains a structure of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces, resulting in much smaller micelles that can permeate tissues more effectively than other detergents.
That final letter in SHANEL, as noted, stands for "Labeling," which is another problem that's vexed scientists and for which SHANEL provides a new solution. While seeing inside organs is a large part of the battle, another is developing a means of marking molecular structures so they can be differentiated from other components of the organs. This is generally done using a method called "permeabilization," that sneaks dyes and such between tissue cells to mark the desired objects. SHANEL's smaller, micelles greatly improves scientists' ability to reach and make desired targets visible in imagery, as the videos here show so dramatically.
Just the beginning
For now, SHANEL's inventors assert they can clear "human samples ranging from 1.5 cm thickness to whole adult human organs," adding, "We also show that the technology works on other large mammalian organs such as pig brain and pancreas." Going forward they expect to "pave the way for cellular and molecular mapping of whole adult human organs, including the human brain."
We imagine you agree they're already creating some pretty amazing imagery.
Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Are we genetically inclined for superstition or just fearful of the truth?
- From secret societies to faked moon landings, one thing that humanity seems to have an endless supply of is conspiracy theories. In this compilation, physicist Michio Kaku, science communicator Bill Nye, psychologist Sarah Rose Cavanagh, skeptic Michael Shermer, and actor and playwright John Cameron Mitchell consider the nature of truth and why some groups believe the things they do.
- "I think there's a gene for superstition, a gene for hearsay, a gene for magic, a gene for magical thinking," argues Kaku. The theoretical physicist says that science goes against "natural thinking," and that the superstition gene persists because, one out of ten times, it actually worked and saved us.
- Other theories shared include the idea of cognitive dissonance, the dangerous power of fear to inhibit critical thinking, and Hollywood's romanticization of conspiracies. Because conspiracy theories are so diverse and multifaceted, combating them has not been an easy task for science.
A growing body of research suggests COVID-19 can cause serious neurological problems.
- The new study seeks to track the health of 50,000 people who have tested positive for COVID-19.
- The study aims to explore whether the disease causes cognitive impairment and other conditions.
- Recent research suggests that COVID-19 can, directly or indirectly, cause brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage and other neurological problems.
Brain images of a patient with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis.
COVID-19 and the brain<p>A growing body of research reveals alarming neurological complications among COVID-19 patients. On Wednesday, for example, researchers from University College London published a <a href="https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/doi/10.1093/brain/awaa240/5868408" target="_blank">study</a> in the journal Brain that describes how some patients have suffered temporary brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage, and other neurological problems concurrent with COVID-19.</p><p>Some patients suffered brain inflammation as a result of a rare disease called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which can cause numbness, seizures, and confusion. One patient in the study even hallucinated monkeys and lions in her home.</p>
Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images<p>A separate study published in the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198407/" target="_blank">Journal of Clinical Neuroscience</a> notes that some COVID-19 patients have also suffered neurological complications like impaired consciousness and acute cerebrovascular disease. The study notes that past viruses like MERS and SARS also seemed to cause neurological problems.</p><p>A troubling finding among this growing body of research is that some patients seem to suffer neurological damage even when respiratory symptoms aren't obvious. Additionally, scientists aren't sure whether damage from the disease will be permanent.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Given that the disease has only been around for a matter of months, we might not yet know what long-term damage COVID-19 can cause," Dr. Ross Paterson, joint first author of the University College London study, said in a <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-07/ucl-iid070620.php" target="_blank">press release</a>. "Doctors needs to be aware of possible neurological effects, as early diagnosis can improve patient outcomes."</p><p>If you've been diagnosed with COVID-19 and want to enroll in the study, visit <a href="https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study" target="_blank">cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study</a>.</p>
Coronavirus layoffs are a glimpse into our automated future. We need to build better education opportunities now so Americans can find work in the economy of tomorrow.