An unexplained seismic event ‘rang’ across the Earth in November
It has experts baffled.
- On November 11, seismologists began puzzling over a weird low-frequency rumble that rang the entire planet.
- The wave coming from somewhere was weirdly simple and tied to no known events.
- More comprehensive study of an uncharted area of the ocean floor could provide an explanation of the mystery.
Someone who tracks earthquakes for fun noticed it first. On November 11, 2018, a Twitter user going by @matarikipax spotted a weird signal on the U.S Geological Survey's live seismogram page. The signal had been captured by equipment in Kilimambogo, Kenya. Matarikpax posted an image of it with the message, "This is a most odd and unusual seismic signal." Then he saw it in data from Zambia and Ethiopia before looking farther away and finding it in Spain, and then eventually in his own corner of the world, Wellington, New Zealand. Other seismic-savvy people soon joined in as the mysterious low-frequency rumble circled the globe for about 20 minutes. It was also detected in Chile, Canada, and Hawaii. Eventually, its source was determined to be about 15 miles off of French archipelago Mayotte, located off Africa between Mozambique and the northern end of Madagascar.
Speaking to National Geographic, Columbia University seismologist Göran Ekström, a specialist in strange earthquakes, says that, "I don't think I've seen anything like it." Even so, he cautions. "It doesn't mean that, in the end, the cause… is that exotic." Even so, it's got seismologists baffled.
What’s so weird about the mystery rumble?
While Mayotte has experienced hundreds of tremors since last May, the strongest, a 5.8 quake, occurred on May 15 and since then they've been tapering off in recent months. And there's been no seismic activity that corresponds to the November wave. Still, the seismology community suspects it's somehow related to the recent activity off Mayotte.
Normally, earthquakes produce "wave trains" comprised of high-frequency P (for "Primary") waves that travel in pulses, as well as mid-frequency S (for "Secondary") waves that wiggle side-to-side. Slow, low-frequency waves such as the mystery rumble are generally produced at the tail end of intense earthquakes, but again, there hasn't been one anywhere in the right time frame that we know of.
Also, and just as "odd," is that the wave is monochromatic. Most waves contain a cluster of waves at different speeds, or frequencies, that make for a fuzzy, complicated burst of a waveshape on monitoring equipment. The November wave was comprised of just a single frequency, and appeared as an unusually simple, clean zig-zag of about 17 seconds in length. Helen Robinson at the University of Glasgow, mischievously suggests to National Geographic, "They're too nice; they're too perfect to be nature." It could be surrounding rock is filtering out other waves. Supporting this possibility is that, when the lowest frequencies are filtered out of the waveform, noise appears that could be faint P and S signals are seen. Independent seismologist Anthony Lomax tweeted the following image.
At the top is the simple, unfiltered mystery wave. The bottom shows possible P- and S-wave echoes when the wave was filtered.
Maybe it was...
Among the first people to whom @matarikipax reached out was Jamie Gurney, the founder of the UK Earthquake Bulletin, who replied, "First guess would be some kind of meteor air burst, possibly offshore Kenya/Tanzania in the Indian Ocean." Before lunchtime on the 11th, consensus was gathering around the theory that the global ringing was from a massive phreatic eruption very deep in the ocean. A depth of around 3,000 meters was suggested, although no supporting evidence of such an eruption has yet surfaced. Evidence of an event perhaps similar to this was spotted accidentally by an airplane passenger flying over the Pacific Ocean south of Raoul Island in 2012 — a floating raft of pumice gave it away. While no satellite imagery of the suspect Mayotte location has been examined yet, it's worth noting that no such weird wave was reported during the Raoul event.
The French Geological Survey (BRGM) is leaning toward the idea that the wave originated in some massive magmatic movement deep underwater. The Mayotte archipelago is volcanic in origin, and the last eruptions are believed to have been 4,000 years ago. Trouble is, "The location of the [Mayotte] swarm is on the edge of the [geological] maps we have," according to BRGM's head of seismic and volcanic risk Nicolas Taillefer, speaking with National Geographic. "There are a lot things we don't know." As for the Nov. 11 puzzler, "It's something quite new in the signals on our stations."
Another possibility, says Ekström, is that it was an unnoticed slow quake, possibly about a magnitude 5. Instead of the characteristic and dramatic snap of a regular earthquake, slow quakes occur over the course of minutes, gradually releasing built-up stress. "The same deformation happens, but it doesn't happen as a jolt," says Ekström.
Obviously, the mystery makes seismologist want to know much more about this area of the ocean floor and similarly uncharted undersea locations elsewhere. For now, it's a very intriguing riddle.
"Depending on what field and what time in history, 99.9 percent of the time, it's ordinary, or noise, or a mistake, and 0.1 percent, it's something. But that's just the way it goes. That's the way it should go. That's scientific advance." — Anthony Lomax
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Whether or not women think beards are sexy has to do with "moral disgust"
- A new study found that women perceive men with facial hair to be more attractive as well as physically and socially dominant.
- Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength, social assertiveness, and formidability.
- Women who display higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, are more likely to prefer hairy faces.
Beards and perceptions of masculinity<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg0MC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NzkxMjM3N30.cH-GqNwP5GVqvstgJWAhBPn1B_lYpVEAI0I7iax7EQw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C1900%2C0%2C849&height=700" id="caae6" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="cb0a355a4e8e1899789bc45f3f7aef56" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Photo Credit: Wikimedia<p>The study used 919 American (mostly white) women ages 18-70 who rated 30 pictures of men they were shown with various stages of facial hair growth. The photographs depicted men with faces that had been digitally altered to look more feminine or more masculine, with a beard and without a beard. The women rated the men according to perceived attractiveness for long-term and short-term relationships. The study found that the more facial hair the men had, the higher the men were rated on their attractiveness, particularly for their suitability for a long-term relationship.</p><p>Part of this might be attributed to facial masculinity — i.e. protruding brow ridge, wide cheekbones, thick jawline, and deeply set narrow eyes — which conveys information to a woman about a man's underlying health and formidability. Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength and social assertiveness. It can also indicate a man with a superior immune response. The researchers suggested that their findings favoring bearded men could be due to the fact that facial hair enhances the masculine facial features on a man's face, like creating the illusion of a thicker jaw line. This could communicate direct benefits to women like resources and protection that would enhance survival among mothers and their infants. In other words, while a beard doesn't mean superior genetics in and of itself, it might be a primitive, ornamental way of saying, "Hey girl, I'm a testosterone-fueled lean, mean, pathogen fighting machine." <br></p><p>It could also be that a beard becomes its own destiny. The researchers in this study cite prior research that found that by growing a beard, men felt more masculine and had higher levels of serum testosterone, which was linked to a higher level of social dominance. They also tended to subscribe to more old-school beliefs about gender roles in their relationships with women as compared to men with clean-shaven faces.<span></span><br></p>
What does disgust have to do with beard preference?<p>Obviously, not all women dig beards. The researchers were particularly interested in what traits make a women prefer bearded men over clean-shaven faces. They looked into several factors including a woman's disgust levels on various concepts, her desire to become pregnant, and her exposure to facial hair in her personal life. </p><p>According to the study, women who were not into facial hair were turned-off by potential parasites or other critters they imagined could be in the hair or skin. Women ranking high on this "ectoparasite disgust" scale might have viewed beards as a sign of poor grooming habits. However, women who ranked higher in levels of "pathogen" did find the bearded men to be desirable, possibly because they perceived beards as a signal of good health and immune function. An intriguing discovery in the study was links to morality. Women who displayed higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, were more likely to prefer hairy faces. The authors opined that this could reflect a link between beardedness, politically conservative outlooks, and traditional views regarding performances of masculinity in heterosexual relationships.</p>
Additional findings<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg1My9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNDI1NjUyOX0.P9B8WbmJR0q4nfzYZKbuNSA-2SAigVWJgrQE-_Gxlds/img.gif?width=980" id="49143" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2ed3b1d6f20fc170bf2974646e565e8d" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />Giphy<p>The correlations that existed between married and single women's rating on the attractiveness of beards were not particularly clear, although the researchers noted that single and married women who wanted children tended to find beards more attractive than the women who didn't want children. They also found that women with bearded husbands found beards to be more attractive, which might indicate that social exposure to beards influences how desirable they are perceived of as being. Or it could be that men with wives who like beards grow beards.</p><p>It's important to note that culture plays a huge role in how attractive women perceive certain male characteristics as being. This study looked at a small, culturally specific group of American women, so no big, universal claims should be made about masculinity, facial hair, and male desirability to women. However, research like this is important in highlighting how human grooming decisions are driven by much more than fashion trends. Sociobiological, economic, and ecological factors all play a part in the way we choose to present ourselves.</p>
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