Is the keto diet safe for everyone? Probably not.
Just because the keto diet is an effective weight-loss tool doesn't mean everyone should try it.
- The keto diet might be a fad diet, but it's unique in that involves putting the body into an alternate and natural metabolic state.
- However, the diet likely isn't safe for everyone, particularly when it's implemented poorly.
- Children, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and those at risk for heart disease should understand the risks of the keto diet before experimenting with it.
People experiment with all kinds of crazy, unhealthy diets to lose weight: eating cotton balls soaked in orange juice, intentionally ingesting tapeworms, and surviving on only grapefruit, to name a few. Some would add the keto diet to that list. As it's gained popularity in recent years, many have questioned whether the diet really is the hyper-effective weight-loss tool its supporters claim it to be, or simply another fad diet that could lead to serious health complications.
Unlike other fad diets, the high-fat, low-carb keto diet involves putting the body into a natural metabolic state called ketosis, in which the body burns fat for fuel instead of glucose. Although this metabolic state is a generally safe way to help you lose weight, it can be very difficult to maintain. For example, eating just one carb-heavy meal can kick you out of ketosis, forcing you to restart the process. It can also lead to health complications when done improperly, or when people with certain health conditions attempt the diet.
In short, it's not for everybody. So, who exactly shouldn't try it?
Dieting of any kind isn't recommended for pregnant women, who are advised to eat about an extra 300 calories per day while expecting, according to the American Pregnancy Association. The keto diet doesn't seem to be an exception: Multiple studies on rodents have linked maternal ketosis to fetal abnormalities.
One reason the keto diet is potentially unsafe for pregnant mothers is that it can result in fewer and less diverse nutrients. Fats, after all, don't pack as many nutrients as many other proteins and carbs.
"Nourishing your baby is the most important thing when you are pregnant," Charles Seltzer, a nutritionist based in Philadelphia, told INSIDER. "Ketogenic diets steer you away from really nutrient dense foods like fruit, which are packed with vitamins and minerals. These are crucial for the development of a baby."
What's more, subjecting newborns to a limited diet could lead to serious changes in their developing bodies.
"If you're restricting carbs while pregnant (like you would be on the keto diet), this restriction tells your baby's developing body that carbs are not a readily available food source," wrote registered dietician Laura Schoenfeld on her website. "So their body learns that foods high in this macronutrient won't be as available when they're born.
This can theoretically lead to conditions like obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin deficiency in the child if they end up eating a diet that has a much higher quantity of carbs than a ketogenic diet.
Unless you keep your child on a ketogenic diet for their entire lives, you may be setting your kid up for future metabolic inflexibility."
Ultimately, there's no solid research proving the keto diet is good or bad for pregnant women, but given the potential risks involved it's almost surely not worth experimenting with.
Generally, medical professionals recommend that breastfeeding women avoid strict low-carb diets. One reason is because sudden weight loss can slow down — or, in some cases, stop — milk production.
"You need more carbohydrates and sugar to produce milk than most keto plans allow in the weight-loss phase," Amber Edwards, a board-certified lactation consultant, told Romper.
Elizabeth Ward, a dietician and author of "Expect The Best: Your Guide to Healthy Eating Before, During, and After Pregnancy", advised against the keto diet for pregnant women.
"I can't endorse such an extreme eating plan for breastfeeding women," said told Parents.com, noting that the diet tends to limit fruit and healthy grains. "Inadequate intake of starchy foods, such as whole grains, potatoes, and beans, is bad news for gut health because beneficial bacteria feed on the fiber in those foods."
Still, women who want to cut carbs are probably fine sticking to the maintenance phase of the diet, which calls for eating relatively more carbs than earlier phases. Of course, it's always best to check in with your doctor before making big changes to your diet – especially if pregnant or breastfeeding.
"... in the maintenance phase, you're allowed significantly more carbs and fruit, which means that you can continue to produce an adequate supply of milk," Edwards told Romper.
It's probably not a good idea for kids to go on the keto diet unless they're extremely obese or suffer from epilepsy (low-carb diets, by the way, are known to help reduce seizures in epileptics). The main reason is that the dietary needs of kids are different than those of adults.
"Many sources of carbohydrates like whole grains, fruits and dairy have essential vitamins and minerals for growing kids," wrote Jessica McGee, the Food and Nutrition Services Clinical Nutrition Manager at Children's National Health System. "Even adolescents require higher amounts of certain nutrients and should continue to eat a well-rounded diet with a variety of foods into adulthood."
"Feel free to limit (or eat in moderation) carbohydrates like candy, baked goods and sugar-sweetened beverages as these have little nutritional value and can have a detrimental impact on health. Incorporating a balance of healthy carbohydrates, fats and lean protein sources in your kids' diets is encouraged."
People at risk for heart disease
The keto diet has been called both potentially helpful and harmful in terms of cardiovascular health. For instance, a 2013 review found that low-carb diets were associated with higher rates of cardiovascular disease and mortality rates. However, not all of these diets were necessarily ketogenic, and it's possible that these risks arise when people on low-carb diets turn to unhealthy foods.
However, other research suggests a well-implemented keto diet improves cardiovascular health in all measures except low-density lipoprotein cholesterol – the "bad" cholesterol – which the diet seems to increase.
But when it comes to cardiovascular health, perhaps the biggest risk of the keto diet is "yo-yo dieting" – or, losing a bunch of weight and gaining it back over a short timeframe. This stresses your heart and can increase the risk of heart attack, stroke and death.
"People go on keto and in the short term lose a lot of weight, but it's not sustainable," Suzanne Steinbaum, the director of women's heart health prevention and wellness at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, told Everyday Health. "So when they go off it, they gain the weight back — and maybe even more."
"Ultimately what you're doing [with yo-yo dieting] is setting yourself up for developing metabolic syndrome."
The federal government and private insurers greatly increased Americans' telehealth access during the pandemic. Will these changes be permanent?
- When telehealth visits began skyrocketing at the start of the pandemic, hospitals had to increase their number of virtual appointments by magnitudes. Most did it seamlessly.
- Big Think spoke to Dr. Martin Doerfler, director of the Office of Clinical Transformation at Northwell Health, about this transition and how it benefited patients.
- Telehealth has proven its value during the pandemic, but it might stop evolving unless the federal government redesigns the regulatory framework—particularly in terms of reimbursements.
What are the obstacles facing telehealth?<p>One of the biggest obstacles to widespread adoption of telehealth has been a lack of national legislation providing financial incentive for health centers to adopt it.</p><p>"Telehealth has been limited from really having anywhere close to its potential based upon the regulatory framework that it lives in," Doerfler said.</p><p>States laws vary on how practitioners are paid for telehealth visits. In some states, laws require insurance providers to cover telehealth visits at parity—the same rate as in-person visits. But in states without parity laws, there's little incentive for health care organizations to invest in telehealth infrastructure and training.</p><p>Access is also a major obstacle. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) generally reimburse practitioners for telehealth visits only when patients live in "designated rural underserved areas."</p><p>But not all underserved areas are in small, remote places. After all, a single parent living in Queens, New York, might also have trouble accessing quality healthcare.</p><p>"Three hours to drive 200 miles is no different than three hours to take two trains, two buses and a cab," Doerfler said. "So access is almost certainly going to be improved by the greater availability of telehealth in that direct-to-patient, in-their-home-or-office, setting."</p><p>Lack of internet access is also a problem. A <a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2768771?appId=scweb" target="_blank">paper</a> published by the JAMA Network in August found that 41 percent of Medicare beneficiaries don't have a computer at home with access to high-speed internet, and roughly the same number don't have a smartphone with an unlimited data plan.</p>
What is the future of telehealth?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDU1NTU1Ni9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NjA1MjkxMH0.1UuR6tky1k58rOeE9Vcgt8bUfhA2vut6yaCAXik1MEY/img.jpg?width=980" id="9f55b" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="4549f30a0347a85c7145690870cf742c" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="Caucasian female doctor delivering telemedicine consultation to a patient" />
Credit: Daniilvolkov via AdobeStock<p>Lawmakers in both parties and health care professionals have indicated a desire to make permanent some of the regulatory changes to telehealth enacted during the pandemic. That's key, because without the financial incentives to continue expanding telehealth, health care providers may revert to the pre-pandemic approach.</p><p>"One issue, which people who are not in health care might not understand, is that telehealth will continue to expand dramatically as long as there's funding and reimbursement for it," said Michael Dowling, Northwell's president and CEO. "If the insurance companies and government decide, 'We don't want to pay for telehealth going forward or virtual visits,' then it's going to slow down. If there is no delivery system, no health care system or doctor is going to continue to expand telehealth if they don't get paid for it."</p><p>Yet some of the nation's biggest insurers have already <a href="https://www.statnews.com/2020/09/29/united-healthcare-anthem-telemedicine-coverage-insurers/" target="_blank">stopped waiving</a> telehealth deductibles and copays for some customers, even though there's no clear end in sight for the pandemic.</p><p>The long-term solution, Doerfler said, is for CMS to start paying for telehealth services, at parity, up and down the chain. He added that, while telehealth can't replace all traditional health care services, it should be "<a href="https://www.northwell.edu/news/insights/how-to-have-an-effective-telehealth-visit" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">in the toolbox</a>" for patients and physicians.</p><p>"In the modern world, where this type of technology is being used for all sorts of personal and business uses, excluding something as personal as your care between you and your doctor from fitting into that modern paradigm makes no sense," Doerfler said.</p>
The theory could resolve some unanswered questions.
- Most stars begin in binary systems, why not ours?
- Puzzles posed by the Oort cloud and the possibility of Planet 9 may be solved by a new theory of our sun's lost companion.
- The sun and its partner would have become separated long, long ago.
If most stars form in binary pairs, what about our Sun? A new paper presents a model supporting the theory that the Sun may have started out as one member of a temporary binary system. There's a certain elegance to the idea — if it's true, this origin story could resolve some vexing solar-system puzzles, among them the genesis of the Oort Cloud, and the presence of massive captured objects like a Planet Nine.
The paper is published in Astrophysical Journal Letters.
The Oort cloud
Image source: NASA
Scientist believe that surrounding the generally flat solar system is a spherical shell comprised of more than a trillion icy objects more than a mile wide. This is the Oort cloud, and it's likely the source of our solar system's long-term comets — objects that take 200 years or more to orbit the Sun. Inside that shell and surrounding the planets is the Kuiper Belt, a flat disk of scattered objects considered the source of shorter-term comets.
Long-term comets come at us from all directions and astronomers at first suspected their origins to be random. However, it turns out their likely trajectories lead back to a shared aphelion between 2,000 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun to about 100,000 AU, with their different points of origin revealing the shell shape of the Oort cloud along that common aphelion. (An astronomical unit is the distance from the Sun to the Earth.)
No object in the Oort cloud has been directly observed, though Voyager 1 and 2, New Horizons, and Pioneer 10 and 11 are all en route. (The cloud is so far away that all five of the craft will be dead by the time they get there.) To derive a clearer view of the Oort cloud absent actually imagery, scientists utilize computer models based on planetary orbits, solar-system formation simulations, and comet trajectories.
It's generally assumed that the Oort cloud is comprised of debris from the formation of the solar system and neighboring systems, stuff from other systems that we somehow captured. However, says paper co-author Amir Siraj of Harvard, "previous models have had difficulty producing the expected ratio between scattered disk objects and outer Oort cloud objects." As an answer to that, he says, "the binary capture model offers significant improvement and refinement, which is seemingly obvious in retrospect: most sun-like stars are born with binary companions."
"Binary systems are far more efficient at capturing objects than are single stars," co-author Ari Loeb, also of Harvard, explains. "If the Oort cloud formed as [indirectly] observed, it would imply that the sun did in fact have a companion of similar mass that was lost before the sun left its birth cluster."
Working out the source of the objects in the Oort cloud is more than just an interesting astronomical riddle, says Siraj. "Objects in the outer Oort Cloud may have played important roles in Earth's history, such as possibly delivering water to Earth and causing the extinction of the dinosaurs. Understanding their origins is important."
Image source: Caltech/R. Hurt (IPAC)/NASA
The gravitational pull resulting from a binary companion to the Sun may also help explain another intriguing phenomenon: the warping of orbital paths either by something big beyond Pluto — a Planet 9, perhaps — or smaller trans-Neptunian objects closer in, at the outer edges of the Kuiper Belt.
"The puzzle is not only regarding the Oort clouds, but also extreme trans-Neptunian objects, like the potential Planet Nine," Loeb says. "It is unclear where they came from, and our new model predicts that there should be more objects with a similar orbital orientation to [a] Planet Nine."
The authors are looking forward to the upcoming Vera C. Rubin Observatory (VRO) , a Large Synoptic Survey Telescope expected to capture its first light from the cosmos in 2021. It's expected that the VRO will definitively confirm or dismiss the existence of Planet 9. Siraj says, "If the VRO verifies the existence of Planet Nine, and a captured origin, and also finds a population of similarly captured dwarf planets, then the binary model will be favored over the lone stellar history that has been long-assumed."
Missing in action
Lord and Siraj consider it unsurprising that we see no clear sign of the Sun's former companion at this point. Says Loeb, "Passing stars in the birth cluster would have removed the companion from the sun through their gravitational influence. He adds that, "Before the loss of the binary, however, the solar system already would have captured its outer envelope of objects, namely the Oort cloud and the Planet Nine population."
So, where'd it go? Siraj answers, "The sun's long-lost companion could now be anywhere in the Milky Way."
Younger Americans support expanding the Supreme Court and serious political reforms, says new poll.
- Americans under 40 largely favor major political reforms, finds a new survey.
- The poll revealed that most would want to expand the Supreme Court, impose terms limits, and make it easier to vote.
- Millennials are more liberal and reform-centered than Generation Z.
Another amazing tardigrade survival skill is discovered.
- Apparently, some water bears can even beat extreme UV light.
- It may be an adaptation to the summer heat in India.
- Special under-skin pigments neutralize harmful rays.
Stressor testing<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDU1MzIzMS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyMjc2MDc4Mn0.5R6DAfzsq29zvETCEH1sR9rprcnJv_L0KyUW2qedslE/img.jpg?width=980" id="c6b71" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="e7afe644fc94631ed9ea6837ed3920d3" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="water bear illustration" />
3D illustration of a tardigrade
Credit: Dotted Yeti/Shutterstock<p>It seems at times like scientists enjoy playing the "let's see if <em>this</em> kills them" game with tardigrades, a game that humans usually lose. After searching the campus of the Indian Institute of Science, researchers gathered some water bears and brought them back to the lab to see what they could handle.</p><p>The scientists found that after they exposed <a href="http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2018/11/pdb.emo102301.full" target="_blank"><em>Hypsibius exemplaris</em></a> tardigrades to very high doses — 1 kilojoule (kJ) per square meter — of UV light for about 15 minutes, they would in fact die over the next 24 hours. However, when they aimed the same blasts at the reddish-brown tardigrades…nothing. The humans even quadrupled the UV intensity and, nope, they tracked the water bears for 30 days, and a majority of them, 60 percent, were still fine.</p><p>As is often the case with tardigrades, the question is how?</p>
Turning deadly light blue<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDU1MzIwMy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxMTM1NTE2N30.n8FiCLgp5aTqmYby2bjpeu9QJRTV7KzaB9tmTHBzWtk/img.jpg?width=980" id="5d4cc" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="7aa8735a958123bcfb269920eb4d2aed" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Tardigrade's normal appearance (left), and under inverted fluorescence (right)
Credit: Suma et al., Biology Letters (2020)<p>When the researchers examined the tardigrades under an inverted fluorescence microscope they found that when they were exposed to UV light, they became blue. The researchers' hypothesis is that these tardigrades carry fluorescent pigments beneath their skin that they deploy as necessary to transform UV light into simple benign, blue light. It may be that this ability has emerged as an evolutionary response to southern tropical India's often-extreme heat. The study says that typical summer-day UV levels in this region are about 4kJ per square meter.</p><p>Of the 40 percent of the reddish-brown tardigrades that had died before 30 days — mostly after about 20 days — the scientists concluded they had less pigment with which to neutralize UV light.</p><p>When the scientists extracted the pigment from the UV champions and coated some <em>Hypsibius exemplaris</em> tardigrades with the stuff, their resistance to UV exposure was also enhanced, boosting their survival rate to almost twice that of their uncoated brethren.</p><p>Autofluorescence has been found in other animals — parrots, scorpions, chameleons, and frogs, among others — so it's not completely unheard of. In parrots, for example, autofluorescence is hypothesized to be involved in tweaking coloration during mating rituals. Still, surprise, tardigrades seem to be putting it to unusual use by employing it for UV protection. </p>
Rare structures and artifacts of the Viking religion practiced centuries prior to Christianity's introduction have been uncovered by archaeologists in Norway, including a "god house."