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The Early Days of Organ Farming Are a Bit Gnarly
University of California, Davis researchers announce the disappointing results of their implantation of human stem cells in pigs.
In June 2016, scientists from the Salk Institute for Biological Studies at University of California, Davis announced that they’d ambitiously implanted human cells into a whopping 1,500 proto-embryonic pig blastocysts. They were attempting to create a hybrid, a “chimera,” that would be a pig with a pancreas made of human cells. In theory, it would be a pancreas that could be transplanted into a person in need of that organ. Scientists have been investigating the use of animals as incubators in which to cultivate healthy human organs since the 1970s —it’s called “organ farming.” In late January 2017, the team published the results of their experiment in Cell.
The UC scientists had used CRISPR gene editing to remove from a newly fertilized pig embryo the DNA responsible for growing a pancreas, creating a ”niche,” or a gap, into which human cells could be inserted. Next, they took human induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells — adults stem cells regressed so that they can once again grow into any kind of human tissue — and slotted them into the niche.
This isn’t the first chimera the team had attempted. They’d injected rat cells into mouse embryos — the resulting mice had rat gall bladders— and rat cells into pig embryos, which didn’t work at all.
They had also tried introducing human cells into pig embryos before, though without creating a niche. They later found human cells throughout the pig, but they were fairing poorly in competition with the pig’s own cells.
There are plenty of unresolved ethical concerns about organ farming, of course. Obviously there’s the question of whether it’s morally defensible to breed an animal strictly as a source for human parts, and there are worries about the treatment of organ-farm animals. There’s also the possibility of new diseases and/or conditions in humans and pigs that could result from tinkering with the intermingling of their DNA. And some are afraid human cells might wind up in a pig’s brain, causing who-knows-what kind of problems. One of the UC researchers, Pablo Ross, told the BBC last year, "We think there is very low potential for a human brain to grow, but this is something we will be investigating."
So. The new report reveals that though the human stem cells seemed at first to be successfully attaching and growing, they eventually failed. Four weeks after the fetuses had been implanted in mothers, there were only traces of human cells left behind. Principle UC investigator Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte tells Gizmodo, “The ultimate goal is to generate cells for human tissues. We feel that due to the first results we got, we are far way.”
The relative success of the rat-mouse chimera leaves scientists wondering why this experiment failed. It could be that rats and mice are closer genetically than humans and pigs. Human and porcine gestation times are also very different, so there may be a disconnect there. Paul Tesar, associate professor in genetics at Case Western, speaking to Gizmodo, suggests that selecting just the right kind of stem cells might also be a factor.
For Tesar, it’s not a total loss, though: “I think the paper is well done... It’s a huge amount of work, and the number of embryos they tested here is a pretty impressive tour-de-force. The end result might not be what they’re hoping for... but now we can move on from these studies and build upon them to get to the next level of analysis.”
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
Humans are particularly prone to shiver when a group does or thinks the same thing at the same time.
A few years ago, I proposed that the feeling of cold in one's spine, while for example watching a film or listening to music, corresponds to an event when our vital need for cognition is satisfied.
Certain colors are globally linked to certain feelings, the study reveals.
- Color psychology is often used in marketing to alter your perception of products and services.
- Various studies and experiments across multiple years have given us more insight into the link between personality and color.
- The results of a new study spanning 6 continents (30 nations) shows universal correlations between colors and emotions around the globe.
The root of color psychology<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9e40cf62fa8922fcca6c57e2fcb215b6"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/OM4fXB23pCQ?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>There is a very likely chance you've even been "fooled" by color marketing in the past, or you've chosen one product over another subconsciously due to colors that were designed to influence your emotions.<br></p><p>Companies that want to be known for being dependable often use blue in their logos, for example (Dell, HP, IBM). Companies that want to be perceived as fun and exciting go for a splash of orange (Fanta, Nickelodeon, even Amazon). Green is associated with natural, peaceful emotions and is often used by companies like Whole Foods and Tropicana. </p><p><strong>Your favorite color says a lot about your personality. </strong></p><p>Various studies and experiments across multiple years (<a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49595886_Personality_Traits_and_Colour_Preferences" target="_blank">2010</a>, <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jopy.12087" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2014</a>, <a href="http://oaji.net/articles/2015/1170-1448038739.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2015</a>, and more recently in <a href="https://www.verywellmind.com/color-psychology-2795824#modern-research-on-color-psychology" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2019</a>) have given us more insight into the link between your personality and your favorite color.</p><p>Red, for example, is considered a bold color and is associated with feelings such as excitement, passion, anger, danger, energy, and love. The personality traits of this color might be someone who is bold, a little impulsive, and who loves adventure. </p><p>Orange, on the other hand, is considered representative of creativity, happiness, and freedom. The personality traits of this color can be fun, playful, cheerful, nurturing, and productive. Read more about color psychology and personalities <a href="https://bigthink.com/mind-brain/color-personality-psychology?rebelltitem=2#rebelltitem2" target="_self">here</a>.</p>
Study reveals which colors best suit which emotions around the globe<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDYzMTk5OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyODc4OTg5OH0.bY-pu-MFNivdJLDJuBp9TBKrhwuy7hngUa1aIWxQMVw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C93%2C0%2C94&height=700" id="33fff" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="1a5d7bb00dac94bd6201616789fb4882" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="concept of color psychology how colors make us feel color emotions" />
Certain colors are globally ties to certain emotions, the study reveals.
Image by agsandrew on Shutterstock<p>In this particular survey, participants were asked to fill out an online questionnaire which involved assigning 20 emotions to 12 different color terms. They were also asked to specify the intensity with which they associated the color term with the emotion.</p><p><strong>Certain colors are globally linked to certain emotions, the study reveals.</strong></p><p>The results of this study showed a few definite correlations between colors and emotions throughout the globe. Red, for example, is the only color that is strongly associated with both negative (anger) and positive (love) feelings. Brown, on the other end of the spectrum, is the color that triggers the fewest emotions globally.<br></p><p>The color white is closely associated with sadness in China, while purple is what is closely associated with sadness in Greece. This can be traced back to the roots of each culture, with white being worn at funerals in China and dark purple being the Greek Orthodox Church's color of mourning. </p><p>Yellow is more associated with joy, specifically in countries that see less sunshine. Meanwhile, its association with joy is weaker in areas that have greater exposure to sunshine. </p><p><a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200910150247.htm" target="_blank">According to Dr. Oberfeld-Twistel</a>, it is difficult to say exactly what the causes for global similarities and differences are. "There is a range of possible influencing factors: language, culture, religion, climate, the history of human development, the human perceptual system."</p>