How Genetic Engineering Will Change Our Lives
Genetic engineering, utilizing CRISPR, promises to change human lives by bringing an end to disease while irreversibly modifying our gene pool.
If you were told just a couple of decades ago that you would be one day carrying in your pocket a small device more powerful than any computational system in existence, you'd consider that science fiction. But one day it happened and, chances are, you are reading this article on just such a device. Similarly, genetic engineering may seem not entirely real just yet but it can soon take over our lives.
A popular new video by the German media company Kurzgesagt shows just how that will happen.
In a way, humans have been engineering genes for thousands of years by utilizing selective breeding. They bred horses, dogs and even royals (as members of a royal family would often marry those of “blue blood”). But now we can control what happens much more precisely by editing the DNA.
Today we have featherless chicken, super-muscled pigs, salmons that grow super fast, and see-through frogs. Will we have super humans tomorrow? Will gene editing lead to the end of disease, designer babies and eternal youth?
Until recently, gene editing was too expensive and difficult to pull off. But a new technology called CRISPR is changing that.
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat) shrinks the cost by 99% and takes a few weeks to do what used to take years.
How does CRISPR work? Kurzgesagt explains it as kind of a DNA archive that arms a protein called Cas9 to modify genes.
Scientists figured out that you can program CRISPR to edit live cells. In 2015, scientists used CRISPR to cut HIV out cells in mice. It might be just a matter of time until CRISPR therapy in humans cures HIV, viruses like Herpes, and thousands of genetic diseases like Hemophilia or Huntington’s Disease.
CRISPR can also be used to defeat cancer, with first clinical trials in humans approved in 2016.
CRISPR can and probably will be used to create designer babies, once the technology to edit human embryos becomes more robust. In turn, modified humans could alter the genome of our entire species once they start procreating, thus essentially making the next step in our evolution.
Once the first designer babies will be created to get rid of obvious genetic diseases, it might become unethical to not use gene editing. If you can cure someone, why wouldn’t you?
As genetic modification will become more accepted, we will start enhancing human characteristics like eye sight, height, muscular structure, intelligence and more.
Next, gene editing will take on aging. After all, it’s our biggest enemy. If genetic engineering could stop aging, would we argue against it?
Farther in the future, we can also modify humans for extended space travel and the hostile conditions of some alien planet.
Will such a future world reject non-perfect, unmodified humans? It’s important to ask, as “playing God” promises all types of unpredictable trials and errors. But banning genetic engineering is not going to stop it. An argument can be made that someone, somewhere will carry on the genetic work. Is it then not better that we practice it with oversight and transparency?
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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