Multitasking is killing your productivity
Multitasking has been shown to diminish our ability to learn, stress us out, and kill our productivity. Here are some techniques to limit multitasking and help us regain our lost time.
You begin the project your boss wants by end of the day and put on The Office for background noise. You get a good flow going just before receiving an email, and you start to write a response, but then a coworker hails you from across the open office right when an instant message pops onto your screen with a hilarious meme, and you try to help one coworker while letting the other know you appreciate the LOLs, but then you realize you can’t remember which of your 15 browser tabs were for the project and which were for the email, and now the phone is ringing.
Welcome to the modern American workday, a multitasking gauntlet from start to finish.
While managers view multitasking as a means to increase productivity, neuroscientists couldn’t disagree more. Decades of research has shown that the human brain wasn’t designed to multitask, and pushing workers to do so not only leads to stressful work environments but also kills productivity — not to mention profits.
Are you a multitasking junkie looking to sober up and de-stress? Here’s what you need to know.
Multitasking is for the birds (and computers)
The word “multitask” entered our lexicon with the advent of computers, and by the late ‘90s, it was adopted as business jargon to describe modern work habits. While the verb is perfectly apt for computers, where even early CPUs could execute multiple processes concurrently, it is less apt for people and our remarkable, if finicky, brains.
As Dan Harris told Big Think, “Multitasking is a computer-derived term. Computers have many processors. We have only one processor. We literally neurologically cannot do more than one thing at a time.”
Instead of multitasking, the human brain performs a function called “task switching.” Summarizing the research, the American Psychological Association explains task switching as follows:
The human “executive control” processes have two distinct, complementary stages. They call one stage “goal shifting” (“I want to do this now instead of that”) and the other stage “rule activation” (“I’m turning off the rules for that and turning on the rules for this”). Both of these stages help people to, without awareness, switch between tasks. That’s helpful. Problems arise only when switching costs conflict with environmental demands for productivity and safety.
For example, you can easily hold a conversation, drink a cup of coffee, and walk at the same time. That’s because two of those acts, walking and drinking, require little focus, allowing your brain to dedicate its processing power to the conversation. (Even then, consider the times you’ve spilled coffee on yourself because the mouth hole shifted slightly to the left.)
On the other hand, when two activities require focus, your brain must disengage the neurons for one task (goal switching) and then fire up the neurons for the other task (rule activation), and it must do this every time your attention changes. This is why the modern office environment previously illustrated is so inefficient.
Multitasking has been shown to diminish our ability to learn, stress us out, waste our productive time, and add 50 percent more errors to our work. One study estimated the global loss from multitasking could be as much as $450 billion a year.
When you consider losses beyond the office, such as texting and driving, the results are even more devastating.
While humans obviously lose to computers, we aren’t even the best multitaskers — sorry, task switchers — in the animal kingdom. Dr. Sara Letzner and Dr. Onur Güntürkün from Ruhr-Universitaet-Bochum tested the task switching abilities of people and pigeons. Although the sample size was small, the pigeons outperformed the humans and switched tasks 250 milliseconds faster.
Recovering your productivity and health
The alternative to multitasking is, obviously, to focus on one task at a time. Productivity guru Cal Newport calls this approach “deep work,” but it also goes by flow and monotasking. Whatever the label, the goal is the same: Develop techniques to keep your focus on important tasks and exclude the myriad of lesser stimuli vying for your attention. Such techniques include:
Schedule your day. Schedule your day to dedicate the hours you are most productive to important work. For most people, this will be in the morning after breakfast but before the afternoon slump. Then schedule time for less important work during your less productive hours. Those emails aren’t going anywhere.
List priorities. Write out the day’s priorities before you start work or the night before. List them in order from most important to least, and check them off as you go. By committing yourself right away to your most important task, you’ll help maintain your focus and keep to the schedule you set out above.
Time management. There are many ways to manage your time to foster focus. One popular method is the Pomodoro technique. With it, you schedule your work around 30-minute chunks of time, 25 minutes dedicated to a single task and a five-minute break. You can learn more about it here.
Shut out distractions. It’s not just enough to ignore distraction; you’ve got to shut them out. If your distractions come from fellow co-workers, a nice, big pair of headphones will provide the visual equivalent of a “Do Not Disturb” sign. If they don’t take the hint, then…maybe an actual “Do Not Disturb” sign? A bit blunt, true, but it’ll get the job done.
Tune out. If you need background noise, don’t play anything that draws your attention away from your work. You may think you’ve seen The Office enough to ignore it, but the truth is that you will always be keeping an ear open for your favorite bits (Parkour!). Go with music instead. Again, nothing that pulls at your attention with a swelling urge to sin karaoke. Instrumental music will serve you best. Alternatively, you could see if a background noise generator works for you.
Blacklist the Internet. Only visit the parts of the Internet that are required to complete your work. Stay away from social media, news sites, and all wikiholes. If need a helping hand, there are several programs that can blacklist the less productive parts of the Internet.
Take breaks. Like any part of your body, your brain gets tired the more you work it. Taking breaks will revitalize your mind so you can keep going strong. To get the most from your breaks, be sure to disconnect from work entirely. Grab a snack, socialize with a coworker, read a book, or enjoy the wisdom of Nick Offerman.
Develop mindfulness. Mindfulness, productivity, and monotasking go hand-in-hand. As you practice mindfulness, you’ll be able to better keep your attention from straying toward other projects, after-work activities, and fears about performance, improving your productivity and follow-through.
Stay healthy. You don’t need yet another article telling you to eat healthy and exercise, so let’s make this short. A healthy mind and body are key to giving you the energy and positive emotions to push yourself to finish the workday strong.
All of this is, of course, easier said than done. Focus isn’t easy. Distraction is what our minds do, and it isn’t helped by our always-on, instant-results culture. To implement these changes, you may need to have a difficult talk with your manager about the benefits of monotasking. But the benefits to your productivity and work-life balance will be well worth the effort.
What would happen if you tripled the US population? Join Matthew Yglesias and Charles Duhigg at 1pm ET on Monday, September 28.
Whether or not women think beards are sexy has to do with "moral disgust"
- A new study found that women perceive men with facial hair to be more attractive as well as physically and socially dominant.
- Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength, social assertiveness, and formidability.
- Women who display higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, are more likely to prefer hairy faces.
Beards and perceptions of masculinity<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg0MC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NzkxMjM3N30.cH-GqNwP5GVqvstgJWAhBPn1B_lYpVEAI0I7iax7EQw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C1900%2C0%2C849&height=700" id="caae6" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="cb0a355a4e8e1899789bc45f3f7aef56" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Photo Credit: Wikimedia<p>The study used 919 American (mostly white) women ages 18-70 who rated 30 pictures of men they were shown with various stages of facial hair growth. The photographs depicted men with faces that had been digitally altered to look more feminine or more masculine, with a beard and without a beard. The women rated the men according to perceived attractiveness for long-term and short-term relationships. The study found that the more facial hair the men had, the higher the men were rated on their attractiveness, particularly for their suitability for a long-term relationship.</p><p>Part of this might be attributed to facial masculinity — i.e. protruding brow ridge, wide cheekbones, thick jawline, and deeply set narrow eyes — which conveys information to a woman about a man's underlying health and formidability. Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength and social assertiveness. It can also indicate a man with a superior immune response. The researchers suggested that their findings favoring bearded men could be due to the fact that facial hair enhances the masculine facial features on a man's face, like creating the illusion of a thicker jaw line. This could communicate direct benefits to women like resources and protection that would enhance survival among mothers and their infants. In other words, while a beard doesn't mean superior genetics in and of itself, it might be a primitive, ornamental way of saying, "Hey girl, I'm a testosterone-fueled lean, mean, pathogen fighting machine." <br></p><p>It could also be that a beard becomes its own destiny. The researchers in this study cite prior research that found that by growing a beard, men felt more masculine and had higher levels of serum testosterone, which was linked to a higher level of social dominance. They also tended to subscribe to more old-school beliefs about gender roles in their relationships with women as compared to men with clean-shaven faces.<span></span><br></p>
What does disgust have to do with beard preference?<p>Obviously, not all women dig beards. The researchers were particularly interested in what traits make a women prefer bearded men over clean-shaven faces. They looked into several factors including a woman's disgust levels on various concepts, her desire to become pregnant, and her exposure to facial hair in her personal life. </p><p>According to the study, women who were not into facial hair were turned-off by potential parasites or other critters they imagined could be in the hair or skin. Women ranking high on this "ectoparasite disgust" scale might have viewed beards as a sign of poor grooming habits. However, women who ranked higher in levels of "pathogen" did find the bearded men to be desirable, possibly because they perceived beards as a signal of good health and immune function. An intriguing discovery in the study was links to morality. Women who displayed higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, were more likely to prefer hairy faces. The authors opined that this could reflect a link between beardedness, politically conservative outlooks, and traditional views regarding performances of masculinity in heterosexual relationships.</p>
Additional findings<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg1My9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNDI1NjUyOX0.P9B8WbmJR0q4nfzYZKbuNSA-2SAigVWJgrQE-_Gxlds/img.gif?width=980" id="49143" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2ed3b1d6f20fc170bf2974646e565e8d" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />Giphy<p>The correlations that existed between married and single women's rating on the attractiveness of beards were not particularly clear, although the researchers noted that single and married women who wanted children tended to find beards more attractive than the women who didn't want children. They also found that women with bearded husbands found beards to be more attractive, which might indicate that social exposure to beards influences how desirable they are perceived of as being. Or it could be that men with wives who like beards grow beards.</p><p>It's important to note that culture plays a huge role in how attractive women perceive certain male characteristics as being. This study looked at a small, culturally specific group of American women, so no big, universal claims should be made about masculinity, facial hair, and male desirability to women. However, research like this is important in highlighting how human grooming decisions are driven by much more than fashion trends. Sociobiological, economic, and ecological factors all play a part in the way we choose to present ourselves.</p>
Dominique Crenn, the only female chef in America with three Michelin stars, joins Big Think Live.
Having been exposed to mavericks in the French culinary world at a young age, three-star Michelin chef Dominique Crenn made it her mission to cook in a way that is not only delicious and elegant, but also expressive, memorable, and true to her experience.
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