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How Hearing Something Now, Can Lead You to Believe the Opposite Later
If I were to say that “crocodiles sleep with their eyes closed,” and then a week later ask you if “crocodiles sleep with their eyes open,” what would you say? The answer might surprise you.
We’ve long known of a phenomenon dubbed the truth effect, i.e., that repeated exposure to a claim makes you more likely to believe it is true, regardless of whether or not it really is. This may sound about as surprising as being told that the pope is Catholic, but interestingly it now seems that repetition-induced belief also spreads to similar sounding, but utterly contradictory statements. This suggests that rather than internalizing claims we hear and having a tendency to automatically mentally tag them as true as has previously been suggested, we are simply more likely to believe things that sound familiar to us.
If I were to say that “crocodiles sleep with their eyes closed” and then a week later ask you if “crocodiles sleep with their eyes open,” would you be more or less likely to answer true or false? According to a study published in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, you’d be more likely to say, “True: Crocodiles sleep with their eyes open,” after a week, but, "False: Crocodiles sleep with their eyes closed," if asked on the same day. Similarly, if you are told that “the first animated film was shot in France,” a week later you are, bizarrely, more likely to believe that “the first animated film was shot in England” than you are to believe some other factoid pulled from the sky.
Human beings are suckers for controversy. lf we weren’t, then gossip magazines wouldn’t have pride of place on newsstands.
The new findings build on earlier research that shows how warning people that things are false can lead them to incorrectly remember those things as true, because they forget the label "false," but remember the rest of the statement. This presents a massive problem for those attempting to debunk false information.
Together these findings demonstrate how smear campaigns can be devastatingly effective; the researchers suggest that the statement, “The boss did not harass the employee,” can be just as damaging as the opposite statement, creating an “illusion of truth.” When this occurs — or similarly when debunking a myth — the researchers suggest it may be more effective to simply ignore the error and head straight for the truth:
“At least in some situations, it may be more effective to just tell the truth without mentioning what was wrong.”
This is often easier said than done. It is human nature to want to set the record straight. Nobody wants to read news articles that are just strings of facts with no story. Human beings are suckers for controversy. If we weren’t, then gossip magazines wouldn’t have pride of place on newsstands. This probably isn’t something that is going to change soon, so the “illusion of truth” is a quirk of human nature we might just have to learn to accept.
So, do crocodiles sleep with their eyes open or closed? It turns out that everyone was wrong all along. A new study published in the Journal of Experimental Biology has just found that crocodiles in fact can sleep with one eye open and one eye closed!
Garcia-Marques, T., Silva, R. R., Reber, R., & Unkelbach, C. (2015). Hearing a statement now and believing the opposite later. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 56, 126-129.
Skurnik, I., Yoon, C., Park, D. C., & Schwarz, N. (2005). How warnings about false claims become recommendations. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 713-724.
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Are we genetically inclined for superstition or just fearful of the truth?
- From secret societies to faked moon landings, one thing that humanity seems to have an endless supply of is conspiracy theories. In this compilation, physicist Michio Kaku, science communicator Bill Nye, psychologist Sarah Rose Cavanagh, skeptic Michael Shermer, and actor and playwright John Cameron Mitchell consider the nature of truth and why some groups believe the things they do.
- "I think there's a gene for superstition, a gene for hearsay, a gene for magic, a gene for magical thinking," argues Kaku. The theoretical physicist says that science goes against "natural thinking," and that the superstition gene persists because, one out of ten times, it actually worked and saved us.
- Other theories shared include the idea of cognitive dissonance, the dangerous power of fear to inhibit critical thinking, and Hollywood's romanticization of conspiracies. Because conspiracy theories are so diverse and multifaceted, combating them has not been an easy task for science.
A growing body of research suggests COVID-19 can cause serious neurological problems.
- The new study seeks to track the health of 50,000 people who have tested positive for COVID-19.
- The study aims to explore whether the disease causes cognitive impairment and other conditions.
- Recent research suggests that COVID-19 can, directly or indirectly, cause brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage and other neurological problems.
Brain images of a patient with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis.
COVID-19 and the brain<p>A growing body of research reveals alarming neurological complications among COVID-19 patients. On Wednesday, for example, researchers from University College London published a <a href="https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/doi/10.1093/brain/awaa240/5868408" target="_blank">study</a> in the journal Brain that describes how some patients have suffered temporary brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage, and other neurological problems concurrent with COVID-19.</p><p>Some patients suffered brain inflammation as a result of a rare disease called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which can cause numbness, seizures, and confusion. One patient in the study even hallucinated monkeys and lions in her home.</p>
Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images<p>A separate study published in the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198407/" target="_blank">Journal of Clinical Neuroscience</a> notes that some COVID-19 patients have also suffered neurological complications like impaired consciousness and acute cerebrovascular disease. The study notes that past viruses like MERS and SARS also seemed to cause neurological problems.</p><p>A troubling finding among this growing body of research is that some patients seem to suffer neurological damage even when respiratory symptoms aren't obvious. Additionally, scientists aren't sure whether damage from the disease will be permanent.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Given that the disease has only been around for a matter of months, we might not yet know what long-term damage COVID-19 can cause," Dr. Ross Paterson, joint first author of the University College London study, said in a <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-07/ucl-iid070620.php" target="_blank">press release</a>. "Doctors needs to be aware of possible neurological effects, as early diagnosis can improve patient outcomes."</p><p>If you've been diagnosed with COVID-19 and want to enroll in the study, visit <a href="https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study" target="_blank">cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study</a>.</p>
Coronavirus layoffs are a glimpse into our automated future. We need to build better education opportunities now so Americans can find work in the economy of tomorrow.