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A new AI passes the smell test almost 100% of the time
Our remarkable olfactory senses are modeled in a new research chip.
- Two researchers have created an algorithm that can accurately identify 10 different smells.
- The AI algorithm runs on an Intel chip that has 130,000 silicon "neurons."
- The natural mammalian olfactory bulb grows new neurons even in adults.
Our noses are busy beasts. At any given moment, multiple smells are competing for our attention, and somehow the brain can tell when it's smelling an orange even against a backdrop of other scents, say perfume or soap. The brain's olfactory bulb has hundreds of receptors tracking odors all the time, and yet somehow keeps everything straight. A scientist at Cornell University working with a researcher at Intel has just created an AI algorithm trained to recognize 10 scents by mimicking the mammalian olfactory bulb (MOB). Give the algorithm a computer chip to run on and it can learn to identify new odors.
Simulating the brain
Image source: GiroScience/Shutterstock
Thomas Cleland, senior author of "Rapid Learning and Robust Recall in a Neuromorphic Olfactory Circuit" published in Nature Machine Intelligence says, "This is a result of over a decade of studying olfactory bulb circuitry in rodents and trying to figure out essentially how it works, with an eye towards things we know animals can do that our machines can't."
"We now know enough to make this work," says Cleland speaking with Cornell Chronicle. "We've built this computational model based on this circuitry, guided heavily by things we know about the biological systems' connectivity and dynamics. Then we say, if this were so, this would work. And the interesting part is that it does work."
Cleland's co-author, Intel intern Nabil Imam, has the AI running on an Intel research chip called Loihi. The chip is something of a wonder all by itself. It's designed to perform neuromorphic computing inspired by the brain, sporting some 130,000 silicon "neurons." Like our own neurons, each can fire independently of the others, sending pulsed signals to its neighbors, changing their electrical states. In addition, Loihi can accept inputs from a variety of physical sensors, such as the metal-oxide chemical sensors that Cleland and Imam used, allowing the entire structure to simulate the natural learning process that occurs when the mammalian brain is fed various sensory inputs.
What the AI knows
In the MOB, there are a couple of important neuron types: mitral cells that switch on to signify a smell has been detected but don't identify it, and granule cells that learn to become specialized and pinpoint chemicals in the smell. This is the process Cleland and Imam have programmed Loihi to imitate when odors are presented to the system's sensors.
The researchers have trained the algorithm to identify 10 chemical smells: acetone, acetaldehyde, ammonia, butanol, ethylene, methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, benzene, and toluene. The idea is that in the presence of an odor, Loihi verifies the scent's presence and patterns of firing neurons identify exactly which smell it is.
Over the course of five cycles of exposure to each odor, the AI was eventually able to associate specific neural firing patterns with specific smells. The AI correctly identified eight of the smells 100 percent of the time, and the remaining two with 90 percent accuracy.
Additional simulations were run in which the target odor was masked 80 percent by other smells, the way they'd often be in the real word. In these tests, accuracy dropped down to just 30 percent, though that's still pretty impressive for such a "young" AI. Says Cleland, "The pattern of the signal has been substantially destroyed, and yet the system is able to recover it."
The sweet smell of success
Image source: Patrick J. Lynch, wikimedia
As AI and machine learning do, Cleland's and Imam's algorithm would be expected to get better with more training. Machine smell-detection for use in bomb-sniffing, for example, is clearly not just around the corner. Still, the research offers new insights about learning.
Due to the normally finite number of neurons available for storage of new memories in an adult brain, and the fact that "when you learn something, it permanently differentiates neurons," as Cleland says, storing new information means changing the information already encoded in neurons. However, the mammalian olfactory bulb is able to continually learn smells — hundreds or thousands of them —without losing knowledge of already-learned odors. It's one of the few areas of the brain that can keep creating new neurons through adulthood.
The researchers' experience with Loihi underscores the value of the olfactory bulb's unusual neuronal expandability. "The computational model turns into a biological hypothesis for why adult neurogenesis is important," Cleland says, "because it does this thing that otherwise would make the system not work. So in that sense, the model is feeding back into biology. And in this other sense, it's the basis for a set of devices for artificial olfactory systems that can be constructed commercially."
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What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
Scientists find that bursts of gamma rays may exceed the speed of light and cause time-reversibility.
- Astrophysicists propose that gamma-ray bursts may exceed the speed of light.
- The superluminal jets may also be responsible for time-reversibility.
- The finding doesn't go against Einstein's theory because this effect happens in the jet medium not a vacuum.
Jet bursting out of a blazar. Black-hole-powered galaxies called blazars are the most common sources detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Cosmic death beams: Understanding gamma ray bursts<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="cu2knVEk" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="c6cfd20fdf31c82cb206ade8ce21ba3f"> <div id="botr_cu2knVEk_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/cu2knVEk-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Philosophers have been asking the question for hundreds of years. Now neuroscientists are joining the quest to find out.
- The debate over whether or not humans have free will is centuries old and ongoing. While studies have confirmed that our brains perform many tasks without conscious effort, there remains the question of how much we control and when it matters.
- According to Dr. Uri Maoz, it comes down to what your definition of free will is and to learning more about how we make decisions versus when it is ok for our brain to subconsciously control our actions and movements.
- "If we understand the interplay between conscious and unconscious," says Maoz, "it might help us realize what we can control and what we can't."
We’ve mapped a million previously undiscovered galaxies beyond the Milky Way. Take the virtual tour here.
See the most detailed survey of the southern sky ever carried out using radio waves.
Astronomers have mapped about a million previously undiscovered galaxies beyond the Milky Way, in the most detailed survey of the southern sky ever carried out using radio waves.
A new study shows our planet is much closer to the supermassive black hole at the galaxy's center than previously estimated.