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The 9 Circles of Hell in Images: Dante's "The Divine Comedy"
A spiritual journey through the world beyond the grave, a hell, a purgatory, and a paradise is considered a masterwork of world literature.
Dante Alighieri completed his epic poem “The Divine Comedy” in 1320. A spiritual journey through the world beyond the grave, a hell, a purgatory, and a paradise is considered a masterwork of world literature.
Calling his poem a "Comedy," Dante uses the medieval classification: a comedy, he says in a letter to Cangrande Della Scala is “all poetry in middle style with a terrifying beginning and a happy end, written in the vernacular.” “The Divine Comedy” is replete with allegories which reflect the postulates of Catholicism along with Italian political issues at that time. Throughout the journey, Dante meets many historical figures from myths, the classical age, early Christianity and biblical history, Europe of the medieval period: Homer, Socrates, Aristotle, Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Helen of Troy, Alexander the Great, Judas Iscariot, Solomon and many others.
Dante elaborates this idea and describes the underworld, with graphical vividness, deciding all the details of his architectonic. In the beginning, Dante's hero meets the poet Vergil, and their path takes them through a colossal funnel of inferno with nine circles, or stages. Then they cross through the center of Earth and, after overcoming the seven terraces of Purgatory, finally reach the gates of Paradiso. The final, third part of the poem is dedicated to the journey of Dante through heavenly paradise with a new guide, Beatrice. Beatrice was Dante's true love: she was a real person, and Dante decided to use her as an important character in his masterpiece.
Below you can see Illuminations, created by Master of the Antiphonar of Padua in the 14th century. In 1845, D. Pietro Zani, a writer and critic of Italian art, discovered the value of this manuscript. Later, in 1842, British Library became the owner of this parchment. The manuscript was digitized by British Library and could be found on Picryl, the largest public domain media search engine.
1. The first circle of Inferno: The Noble Caste: Here stay the souls of unbaptized infants and virtuous non-Christians.
2. The second circle of Inferno: Lust: Souls overcome by lust are suffering from violent storms without rest.
3. The third circle of Inferno: Gluttony : Gluttony is a sin of these souls. They are rotting in the rain and hail under the guard of Cerberus.
4. The fourth circle of the Inferno: Greed: Avaricious souls are doomed to drag enormous weights from place to place.
5. The fifth circle of the Inferno: Wrath: Dante and Virgil entering the black cloud of the wrathful souls.
6. The fifth circle of the Inferno: Heresy: Dante bending over to speak to one of the proud souls, perhaps Oderisi of Gubbio.
7. The sixth circle of the Inferno: Violence: Dante with Count Ugolino, who is gnawing the scalp of Archbishop Ruggieri.
8. The seventh circle of the Inferno: Fraud: Statius and Dante observing the giant and the harlot in an embrace.
9. The ninth circle of the Inferno: Treachery: Dante speaking to Alberigho, who is lying in ice with traitors.
See the whole collection: https://picryl.com/collections/illustrations-dante-alighieri
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
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Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.