Students who think the world is just cheat less, but they need to experience justice to feel that way.
- Students in German and Turkish universities who believed the world is just cheated less than their pessimistic peers.
- The tendency to think the world is just is related to the occurence of experiences of justice.
- The findings may prove useful in helping students adjust to college life.
The world is just? That’s news to a lot of people.<p>The study is the most recent addition to a long line of work focusing on the belief in justice, our behavior, and our reactions to evidence that might suggest injustice occasionally occurs. This study focuses on a personal belief in a just world, (PBJW) rather than a general belief in a just world (GBJW). The difference between them must be highlighted.</p><p>GBJW is the stance that justice prevails all over the world and that people tend to get what they deserve. PBJW is more focused on the individual's social environment and their belief that they tend to be treated justly. While several studies show PBJW correlates with a higher sense of well-being and a variety of other positive effects, a high GBJW is associated with less life satisfaction, negative behavior, and callousness towards the suffering of <a href="https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-3216-0" target="_blank">others</a>. This study controlled for GBJW, and focused on PBJW as much as possible. </p><p>To assure that culture was not a factor, the study included students at universities in both Germany and Turkey. </p><p>The researchers gave students at the four participating universities a series of questionnaires that asked if they ever cheated in class, if they perceived the world to be just, if they though that justice always prevailed everywhere, their tendencies towards socially appropriate behavior, their life satisfaction, and if they felt like they were treated justly by their teachers and fellow students. </p><p>The answers were statistically analyzed for relationships. While some of the connections seem trivially true, others were surprising. <strong></strong></p><p>PBJW turned out to only be an indirect predictor of if a student was likely to cheat. Both a belief in a just world and a lower likelihood of cheating were mediated by the justice experiences of the students, with more of these positive experiences lowering the rate of cheating and improving their belief in justice. This was also associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. </p><p>These effects existed across all demographics in both countries. </p>
What does this mean? Is a belief in justice a self-fulfilling prophecy?<iframe width="730" height="430" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/6oMv-azHNCA" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe><p>In a way, it seems to be. People who have reason to think the world is just to them tend to interpret events in a way to sustain that belief and behave in a just manner. In a larger sense, the take away from this study is that experiences of justice, both from peers and instructors, is vital to student's wellbeing and understanding that the rules that exist about cheating are part of a larger, legitimate, system. </p><p>The researchers, citing previous studies on the perception of justice, note that "justice experiences (1) signal that university students are esteemed members of their social group, which in turn conveys feelings of belonging and social inclusion and (2) motivate them to accept and observe university rules and norms. These cognitive processes may thus strengthen their well-being and decrease the likelihood that they cheat."</p><p>The authors also suggest that if you want people (not only students) to act justly; consider treating them with "civility, respect, and dignity."</p><p>Sometimes, all it can take to help somebody act virtuously is to treat them well. Likewise, people treated harshly can rarely find reason to play by rules that don't protect them. The findings of this study will certainly add to the literature on how we perceive justice in the world around us, but might also help us remember that there are real consequences to our actions which can be much larger than we imagine. <strong></strong></p>
Here's why the Irish president believes students need philosophy.
- President of Ireland Michael D. Higgins calls for students to be thought of as more than tools made to be useful.
- Higgins believes that philosophy and history should be a basic requirement forming a core education.
- The Irish Young Philosopher Awards is one such event that is celebrating this discipline among the youth.
Need for a fully rounded education<p>This kind of sentiment has been echoed before by <a href="https://bigthink.com/personal-growth/alan-watts-education" target="_blank">many leading philosophers</a>, pundits and teachers throughout the latter half of the 20th century. The idea is that the education system has lapsed in its initial purpose. </p><p>What was once a place to become verse in the classics, gain an understanding of basic history logic, mathematics and so on has instead gave way to a hyperspecialized trade school for knowledge workers. Workers that will just be mere cogs and serve an economic function. </p><p>Again, Higgins spoke of the the idea that, "too many policy lobbyists have, often unknowingly, unthinkingly perhaps, accepted a narrow and utilitarian view of... education — one that suggests we exist to be made useful — which leads to a great loss of the capacity to critically evaluate, question, and challenge."</p><p>There has been a diverse chorus of voices ringing the alarm on the deterioration of education as it's being replaced with the idea just to be made useful. </p><blockquote><em>Education has become a prisoner of contemporaneity. It is the past, not the dizzy present, that is the best door to the future. ― Camille Paglia</em></blockquote><p>It is within this sphere of the contemporary where we can't lose focus from the past visions of the great. Philosophy and history is one such area that needs to be upheld. As Higgins rightfully critiques, there is no sense of history or philosophical know-how instilled in young students anymore. Philosophy has almost gotten just <a href="https://bigthink.com/technology-innovation/why-america-is-bad-math" target="_self">as bad a wrap as mathematics.</a> These modes of thought are one of the most important anchoring forces that ground us in demonstrable logic. </p><p>Luckily, it seems that this type of renewal — grounding our education in learning for learning's sake seems to be gaining steam.</p>
Young philosophers in action<p>This is the second year of awards for this type of event. The Irish Young Philosophers Awards was created as an alternative for the annual young scientists exhibition. Dr. Danielle Petherbridge, an event organizer said that the participants had already doubled in the past year with 350 finalists chosen for the festival. </p><p>This year, Higgins presented the award to 16-year-old Lauren Doyle from Mount Sackville Secondary school. The work that won was titled "Why is nature beautiful and why do we destroy it?"</p><p>Echoing again his support for philosophy in schools, Higgins stated: </p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"The neglect of philosophy has had such far reaching consequences, putting limits, even diminishing the learning of so many subjects, thus depriving young people of so much of the enrichment of learning, of what the great philosopher Edward Said called the riches that lie in the interstices between subjects."</p>
Research shows that the way math is taught in schools and how its conceptualized as a subject is severely impairing American student's ability to learn and understand the material.
- Americans continually score either in the mid- or bottom-tier when it comes to math and science compared to their international peers.
- Students have a fundamental misunderstanding of what math is and what it can do. By viewing it as a language, students and teachers can begin to conceptualize it in easier and more practical ways.
- A lot of mistakes come from worrying too much about rote memorization and speedy problem-solving and from students missing large gaps in a subject that is reliant on learning concepts sequentially.
Why the U.S. needs to change its collective view of mathematics<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xODYzODYxNS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzNDQ1MzU5Nn0.p10l4JFZqwwzCLhgRCJYCmxUtexBcEgtmv3t1_ywcGw/img.jpg?width=980" id="b7b38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="567d61a0ab2f98c24e3e9bf017611e35" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="math teacher in front of blackboard, woman in mathematics" />
Mathematics has been taught a certain way for decades in U.S. schools. Maybe it's time for that to change.
Getty Images<p>One of the first things that comes to many people's minds when they think about math is rote memorization, impracticability, and the old slacker adage, <em>"When am I ever going to need to use this?</em>" The quadratic formula, sines, and cosines have gotten a bad rap and taken a verbal beating by an innumerable amount of high schoolers for probably more than a century. </p><p>The vast majority of people who haven't had to use an equation since their senior year or cram session in college just don't see the value in math. That's because they fundamentally misunderstand what mathematics is. </p><p>Neil deGrasse Tyson put it succinctly when he said, "Math is the language of the universe. So the more equations you know, the more you can converse with the cosmos."</p><p>Now, that's part of the equation, but not all of it. Math, in a sense, is a way to speak and manipulate the world in a logic- and reason-based system using a specialized written language. </p><p>It is the language of numbers, quantity, and space, and it's used in applications for engineering, physics, and so on. It's doubtful that math is presented this way to children or students at an early age. But that's just one part of the problem with how we approach math.</p>
Why it's easy to fall behind in math<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="2K39Mwx4" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="d76ff340b9154e09be01edb737e03f6f"> <div id="botr_2K39Mwx4_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/2K39Mwx4-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/2K39Mwx4-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/2K39Mwx4-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div> <p>Professor Po-Shen Loh at Carnegie Mellon believes that everyone is a math person; all they lack is proper instruction. In an <a href="https://bigthink.com/videos/po-shen-loh-says-anyone-can-be-a-math-person-if-they-know-the-best-learning-techniques" target="_blank">interview with Big Think</a>, he went on to say that math is a language that builds upon itself, and not understanding the foundations of math is like not understanding the roots and structure of a language. </p><p>Essentially if a student doesn't catch on in their first years of instruction, it's going to be very difficult for them to reverse course and excel later on down the line. He believes it is essential to catch this early on and address it before a student's issues with math reach a point where they feel "they're just not good at math."</p><p>Professor Loh goes on to say that "Mathematics is the principles of reasoning. There are ways to show you how these basic building blocks of reasoning can be used to deduce surprising and difficult things."</p><p>One major reason that mathematics is difficult to understand is because it is a network of prerequisites. Everything, all of the concepts, are chained in sequences of dependencies. </p><p>If you miss an important concept earlier on—say, not being able to understand how to chart a simple algebraic equation on a line graph, you'll have no idea how to go on to charting even more complicated equations. </p><p>Loh goes on to say that this is much more prevalent in mathematics than history, for example. If you didn't fully understand the War of 1812, it's not going to impact how you learn about the Civil War—aside from the occasional historical patterns you may or may not recognize, of course. </p><p>The way to address this is to provide a learning environment for everyone that moves at their own pace, to make sure to fill in the gaps, and to catch those lapses in understanding before they get out of control. </p><p>And if you're already in too deep, say, as a college grad or just an adult who wants to learn… well, it's time to start from square one.</p>
A faulty learning and teaching methodology<p>A few years back, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) dug a little deeper into how math is taught. A 2012 assessment questioned how students approach the subject. Their responses were categorized in three learning styles: some students relied mostly on memorization, others tried to relate new concepts to ones they've already learned, and finally, some used a self-monitoring approach in which they evaluated their understanding and focused on concepts they had yet to learn. </p><p>Without much of a surprise, it turned out that the memorizers were the least likely to achieve high scores and understanding. The United States ranked in the top three for this learning method. A more in-depth look showed that memorizers were about a half year behind students who used either relational or self-monitoring strategies. </p><p>Research has shown and most likely loads of anecdotal evidence shows that most math classrooms in the United States equate comprehension and skill with speed. Students who are the fastest on their time tables race against the clock to see how fast they can write down their memorized lines. This is not learning, this is not comprehension. </p>
Studies show that stress interferes with the part of our brain we use to manipulate mathematical facts.
Getty Images<p>Studies have shown that children manipulate math facts with their working memory, an area of the brain that will go offline when they experience stress.</p><p>Now put together 45-minute timed tests in a condensed school year or semester combined with math anxiety, faulty instruction and expectations, poor learning methods, potential lapses in the fundamentals, and the problems start to pile up. As a result, the part of the brain responsible for mathematical thinking literally shuts off, and you start to see why Americans are so bad at math.</p><p>Leading mathematician Laurent Schwartz <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/27/magazine/why-do-americans-stink-at-math.html" target="_blank">wrote in his autobiography</a> that he was a slow thinker in math and even believed that he was stupid. That is until he realized that "What is important is to deeply understand things and their relations to each other. This is where intelligence lies. The fact of being quick or slow isn't really relevant."</p><p>The problem has been diagnosed, and a few pieces of the solution have been put together, but something is still missing.</p>
Why new methods of teaching math aren’t working<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xODYzMTcwMS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY2NzE4NjExMX0.xTtJFgPgc1y7botCByUEHfu2d6Yu1esdpkih4o96ngg/img.jpg?width=980" id="71cb2" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="513d77ca20c38d5494f1115b3193fea5" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
We've tried different methods of teaching math over the years, but have any of them worked?
Getty Images<p>Many potentially great minds have probably been turned off by the fast-paced timed tests and wonky teaching methods presented through the years. The language of math needs to be presented in a way that shows how it connects to the world and demonstrates its great capacity for understanding and manipulating reality.</p><p>If more people could tap into this infinite matrix of power, they'd be able to engage in the wondrous world of math and unlock unknown potentials. It's not for a lack of trying that we've failed; it comes down to instruction yet again. </p><p>Despite being today's newest fad and the subject of ire from many on both sides of the political spectrum, <a href="https://bigthink.com/videos/the-common-core" target="_blank">Common Core is our latest panacea</a> for our math woes. Yet we still suffer from what math professor and author John Allen Paulos calls innumeracy—a mathematical illiteracy akin to not being able to read or write. </p><p>What is needed is a fundamental shift in how we view mathematics as a subject so we can learn to imagine how it can benefit and help us in different fields. In addition, we need to make sure that it's taught in a way that no student skips past the fundamentals. Instructors and teachers at all levels must make a systemic change if we're to see any progress. Could this change be Common Core or a different teaching philosophy? We'll find out in the years to come.</p>
A growing body of research suggests that students of color perform better in school when they have at least one teacher of the same race.
Researchers tracked academic achievement, social cognition, executive function, and creativity in a longitudinal study of kids across the socioeconomic spectrum.
Researchers and educators have identified early childhood as one of the most important developmental periods in a person's life, setting in place patterns that can predict life outcomes. This is not surprising given the fact that the human brain goes through profound changes in the first six years, most of which appear to be permanent.