Research from Ohio State finds that acetaminophen affects our emotions.
- Previous research has shown that acetaminophen dulls both our positive and negative feelings.
- The new study finds that those taking the drug consider risks they've been presented as less scary.
- Acetaminophen is an important everyday painkiller, so it's a good idea to factor in what it may be doing to our judgement.
Walking alone in a scary part of town<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDIzNjMzMy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NDc0OTY5OX0.UZiwCiNAST22Zm-FSuhRgQlPAEQh57v7V-6N6dzctqc/img.jpg?width=980" id="c673a" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="e4393f1a54fad097172ee9e92a18d3da" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="person standing on bridge at night" />
Credit: Francois Hoang/Unsplash<p>As part of the study, individuals rated the degree of risk they perceived in a range of activities such as "bungee jumping off a tall bridge" and "speaking your mind about an unpopular issue in a meeting at work." They considered these activities to be less risky than a control group not taking the medication.</p><p>In the first of the study's experiments, 189 college students took either 1,000 mg of acetaminophen — the standard dosage for headache pain — or a similar-looking placebo.</p><p>After giving the acetaminophen time to take effect, those in the study ranked the level of risk they perceived to be associated with a series of activities, on a scale of 1 to 7. Among the activities were walking alone in an unsafe area after dark, bungee jumping, changing careers in one's 30s, and taking a skydiving class. The students taking acetaminophen considered these activities less risky than the control group.</p><p>An additional three studies in which individuals participated in an <a href="http://www.impulsivity.org/measurement/BART" target="_blank">online risk game</a> confirmed this result. In this game, you click to pump up a virtual balloon — as the balloon gets bigger, you earn more money. If the balloon pops, you lose your earnings.</p><p>The acetaminophen-takers proved to be bolder than their control counterparts. People in the control group pumped less and successfully cashed out more often. Recalls Dr. Way, "for those who are on acetaminophen, as the balloon gets bigger, we believe they have less anxiety and less negative emotion about how big the balloon is getting and the possibility of it bursting." They pumped more times, and indeed popped more balloons.</p>
Takeaway<p>Acetaminophen is an important weapon in the modern medical arsenal. Dr. Way points out that it's the CDC's <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/steps-when-sick.html" target="_blank">recommended go-to drug</a> for COVID-19 symptoms. In addition to calming our pounding noggins, surgeons typically prescribe acetaminophen, often with codeine, for post-surgical pain relief; your dentists may also suggest it. Its value lies in how well it works, and also that it's more gentle on our digestive systems than some other painkillers such as <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonsteroidal_anti-inflammatory_drug" target="_blank">NSAIDs</a>, drugs that contain <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibuprofen" target="_blank">ibuprofen</a>. NSAIDs taken regularly pose danger to one's digestive tract.</p><p>Given that we're unlikely to stop taking acetaminophen for our aches and pains, the study represents a helpful little wakeup call. Perhaps we should pump the brakes a bit as we consider risks when we're taking acetaminophen. Take a beat, think twice, and only then carefully secure that bungee cord before you leap.</p>
Acorn woodpecker battles over prized territory are serious business.
- Acorn woodpeckers are highly socialized birds who are, let's say, unusual.
- Small teams of acorn woodpeckers battle for days over coveted territory.
- Up to 30 spectators attend the battles, leaving their own territories unattended to do so.
Acorn woodpeckers<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzgwMDAzMy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYwMTY4NjExN30.hKHCeyekcNOHIkGLbdMF04rSrk89YlxaPSF2I_EH_zw/img.jpg?width=980" id="e21f7" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="7093a92289c1e00f38e76504ad3dc596" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="acorn woodpecker" />
Credit: Ondrej Prosicky/Shutterstock<p>Much of what's known about these birds, including the new research, comes from a long-running project at the <a href="http://hastingsreserve.org" target="_blank">Hastings Natural History Reservation</a> in California's Monterey Country. Acorn woodpeckers first arrived at the sanctuary in 1968 and have been under observation since 1974. The birds are common in the oak woodlands of western North America.</p><p>Acorn woodpeckers have a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygynandry" target="_blank">polygynandrous</a> mating system, something that's rarely seen in nature. A group will consist of as many as seven co-breeding males and four joint-nesting females. Breeding members of the group couple promiscuously within the group, and never outside it.</p><p>It's an incestuous arrangement by human standards, with father and son competing for and breeding with the same females. And though the females use the same nests, it's pretty competitive — one female will remove and eat another mother's eggs to make room for her own. Over time, according to Hastings, this results in a balance in the number of chicks among the females.</p><p>In addition, an acorn woodpecker group will also include other, non-breeding community "helper" members — they're the woodpeckers who go into battle for acorn granaries. Though the woodpeckers primarily feed on insects, acorns provide them with non-perishable nutrition for those colder months when bug meals are few and far between.</p>
Fight Club<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzgwMDAzOS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY2MTcxMDU5Nn0.ep-PNigMZayCRdAp47v-5aBWp9a3x9iwkVLdlOqZEkM/img.jpg?width=980" id="33cea" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fe92b1641ba8518f164dd274e69cc44e" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="acorns embedded in tree holes" />
Credit: David A Litman/Shutterstock<p>A granary for which an acorn woodpecker will fight is reminiscent of a human wine rack: An array of vertical storage compartments for their precious winter food. And they're dead serious about acquiring this storage: "These birds often wait for years, and when there's the right time and they have the right coalition size, they'll go and give it their all to win a really good territory," <a href="https://phys.org/news/2020-09-acorn-woodpeckers-wage-days-long-vacant.html" target="_blank">says Barve.</a></p><p>The balls-to-the-wall action of acorn woodpecker battle have made it difficult for human researchers to keep track of what's going on, so Barve and his colleagues devised a solution: They outfitted woodpeckers with radio tags that allowed the researchers to tell when two birds were in the same location, and to track the origin of combatants, and also to make detailed observations of a melee.</p><p>While the researchers had thought that acorn woodpeckers living nearby would most fiercely make a play for a nearby granary, this turned out not to be the case. It's not yet known what prompts one group of woodpeckers to commit to battle, though the researchers suggest that a group's internal calculus somehow produces a decision whether to try and acquire a particular granary.</p><p>Yet commit they do. The researchers found that woodpecker teams will fight for as long as 10 hours straight, and will return day after day. This was something of a surprise to researchers, making them wonder how they even sustain themselves that long.</p>
"Get ya acorns heayah, acorns, get ya acorns heayah!"<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzgwMDA0Ni9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzNzkyMDMwMX0.MH5tJaZk4PQrANKic92UKkVIG8kuW7gAgrFRQHk1YMk/img.jpg?width=980" id="9a454" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9af4e854af92f7a5c48aba5a86359366" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="woodpeckers" />
Credit: Petr Simon/Shutterstock<p>Previous research missed the spectators because the brouhaha was so overwhelming and attention-grabbing. As many as 30 woodpeckers have been observed in the peanut gallery.</p><p>The researchers have seen birds coming from as far as three kilometers (1.9 miles) away. These onlookers may spend up to an hour each day in attendance. Among the spectators are woodpeckers who already have adequate granaries of their own — whatever they get out of watching has to be worth the time spent leaving their own granaries unattended. The researchers suggest the watchers may be curious about changes a battle could make to the local status quo.<span></span></p><p>These highly social birds may also actually be rooting for one fighting group over another. "They potentially have friendships," <a href="https://phys.org/news/2020-09-acorn-woodpeckers-wage-days-long-vacant.html" target="_blank">says Barve,</a> "and they probably have enemies. The next step is to try and understand how their social networks are shaped, and how they vary across the year."</p>
The old idea of running with springs on your feet gets a high-tech makeover.
The precursor to the modern bicycle, dubbed the hobby horse, was invented in 1817 by Baron Karl von Drais.
Ultrarunners scored significantly higher on the resilience questionnaire than non-runners.
For many, running a marathon is seen as the ultimate amateur athletic achievement; for others, it's just the start. Ultramarathon runners often take on courses of incredibly impressive length, running 50 or 100 kilometres at one time or over several days.
Playing it safe and always taking the easy road can be obstacles to happiness, says professional adventurer Erling Kagge.
- There's a huge misunderstanding that the way to make your life beautiful, and the way to be happy, is to choose the path of least resistance, says polar explorer Erling Kagge.
- Risk makes life meaningful; a small dimension of challenge and danger, combined with well-preparedness, is a way to be present in your life. Novel experiences stop your life from narrowing in around you and going by too fast.
- Remember that Tenzing Norgay didn't die falling off a mountain. He died of lung cancer after a lifetime of smoking. Most accidents happen on the road or in the kitchen, says Kagge. Sometimes it's riskier to do nothing.