A new model of plate tectonics offers a chance to look back a billion years with new found accuracy.
- A new way of looking at plate tectonics offers evidence for how the world looked up to a billion years ago.
- By focusing on plate boundaries rather than the continents and land itself, it avoids the pitfalls of other methods.
- The model doesn't account for everything but is still a great step forward in our understanding of continental drift.
So what does this new approach provide us?<video controls id="99760" width="100%" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="93a975ab78f5e959c6095c99743995e1" expand="1" feedbacks="true" mime_type="video/mp4" shortcode_id="1613057169772" url="https://roar-assets-auto.rbl.ms/runner%2F22367-ezgif.com-gif-maker.mp4" videoControls="true"> <source src="https://roar-assets-auto.rbl.ms/runner%2F22367-ezgif.com-gif-maker.mp4" type="video/mp4"> Your browser does not support the video tag. </video><p> Instead of looking at continents themselves, this approach focuses on how the boundaries between plates move over time. This avoids the limitations of other methods, as the records of where plate boundaries were located are quite enduring. </p><p>Louis Moresi, a geologist at the Australian National University who was not involved with this study, explained the concept, which he called "astonishing" to <a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com/earth/earth-sciences/tectonic-timelapse/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Cosmos Magazine</a>:</p><p>"The plates are continually shoving the continents around and crashing them into each other. That means the geological record is full of evidence of old plate boundaries and the past actions of plates. We have billions of years of the continental record – for example, old mountain belts leave traces in the rock and sedimentary record even after being eroded – so we have evidence for plates from a billion years ago even though they are long gone into the mantle."</p><p>Understanding where the plates were at what times can shed light on the long distant past and explain why the world is the way it is <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/06/science/tectonic-plates-continental-drift.html" target="_blank">today</a>. </p><p>For example, the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowball_Earth" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Snowball Earth hypothesis</a>, the proposal that most of the Earth's surface was frozen over at one or a few points, is relatively dependent on where the continents were at various times. If the continents were not in the correct <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowball_Earth#Continental_distribution" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">locations</a>, the possibility of the Snowball occurrence lowers considerably. This new technique allows scientists to estimate where continents were at those times with more confidence than before.</p><p>This model may also be of use in figuring out how and when oxygen became such an important part of the atmosphere, which in turn made life like us <a href="https://phys.org/news/2021-02-video-billion-years-seconds.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">possible</a>.</p><p>This isn't the end-all solution to everything though, as the authors admit in their study, it doesn't consider things like "<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/True_polar_wander" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">true polar wander</a>," in which the Earth's rotation and how its magnetic field is situated shifts. Given how vital evidence of Earth's magnetic field and its changes are in geology, there is an entire field of study called <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleomagnetism" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Paleomagnetism</a>; the next improvement on existing theory will have to account for it. Despite this issue, the focus on plate boundaries is a huge step forward.<br><br><br>Here's the animation showing how the plates have moved over the last billion years:</p>
Learn how to draw realistic figures for comic books, anatomy courses, and more.
- Masterpieces like the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper followed countless hours of anatomical studies.
- Leonardo da Vinci was fascinated by the human form.
- The Complete Creative Art & Science of Drawing Bundle teaches you how to draw human bodies, heads, and more.
- Marie Kondo's 2014 book, The Life-changing Magic of Tidying Up, has sold over 9 million copies.
- The Japanese organizer's success has turned into a popular Netflix show, Tidying Up With Marie Kondo.
- De-cluttering your home has an emotional resonance, says Kondo.
10 Amazing Tips from Tidying Up with Marie Kondo<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="513362d4486d5574d7e2bf01b97c746b"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/TXzcmr2WcDA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>Put into perspective, Kondo's bestseller, <em>The Life-changing Magic of Tidying Up</em>, makes sense. There is room for cherished mementos that "spark joy," but not so much for empty boxes. Sort your belongings by category, not location. Fold better. Hold onto cherished photos, discard the rest. Reduce, reduce, reduce; discover what's really <em>necessary</em>.</p><p>I thought I had learned this lesson before. I moved to San Francisco shortly after graduating college in 1997. Life happened and I only stayed for half the year, so back to Jersey went my life. UPS went on strike on my way home. This resulted in two weeks of living out of one suitcase. </p><p>What I discovered then is what I rediscovered upon moving to Los Angeles in 2011, which is what I also rediscovered during our first weekend trying out the KonMari Method: we own much more than we need. Though simplistic on the screen, sorting, collecting and discarding objects is cathartic. Like emotional baggage, you realize how much you're holding onto, as well as how good it feels to let it all go. </p><p>And so my wife and I began cleaning on another level. A caveat: we didn't follow instructions perfectly. Kondo suggests cleaning by category. For example, pile all of your books in the center of a room. All clothing, kitchenware, and so on. Instead, we tackled the project room by room, with some categorizing, such as the linen closet and bathrooms. </p><p>From our closets went nine bags to the Salvation Army, plus items I've been holding "just in case," like a giant backpack I used to travel around Europe in 2000 and the comic book collection I'd stowed in a box in high school and never opened again. Two sets of utensils are unnecessary for two people. Do we really need a few dozen mugs? Of course not. Is my life enhanced by old magazines I never thumb through? The answer is obvious.</p>
Organizing guru Marie Kondo arrives for the 91st Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, California on February 24, 2019. Photo credit: Robyn Beck / AFP/Getty Images<p>Yet, as mentioned, sentimental objects are different. Magazine cover stories I wrote warrant filing for the simple reason that they transport me back to a place and time: sitting across from a still-bearded Matisyahu as he prayed over his lunch in downtown Manhattan; drinking too many cappuccinos with Karsh Kale at Cafe Orlin while discussing his latest experimentation with Indian electronica; chatting with the creative Anoushka Shankar about continuing her father's incredible legacy. Moments before all of my writing lived on a screen are part of an autobiography I'd like to track.</p><p>Placing your life into a pile is an incredible way to grapple with your agency. Sure, this "collection of things" might not be the "true you," but it represents facets of your existence. Which of them would be required if you lived a life of scarcity? What would really matter then? How about a life of enough instead of excess? Such questions are impossible to ignore when everything is spread out in front of your eyes. </p><p>Cathartic, yes, but also healing. Also fun. There are many types of work; the most draining and exhilarating inspire emotions. The reorganization process is aspirational. You're putting your life back together — a life you aspire to, one of order and need, not chaos and gluttony. As Kondo writes, you might be angry at your family because your space is cluttered. We are animals of our environment. Create space in yours and emotional clarity ensues. </p><p>Yet I must push back on her feelings about books. Not that I hold onto all of them. I've donated more than I've kept, but the 300 or so surrounding me remain an important aspect of my identity. Perhaps it's not Shinto, but another Japanese word contradicts Kondoism: <a href="https://bigthink.com/21st-century-spirituality/buy-more-books-than-you-ever-read-the-japanese-have-a-word-for-that" target="_self"><em>tsundoku</em></a>. Unread books elevate your space. </p><p>As with closets, dressers, and cabinets, Kondo asks that you move all of your books into a pile in the center of your room. She continues, </p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"The criterion is, of course, whether or not it gives you a thrill of pleasure when you touch it." </p><p>I might not give agency to inanimate ideas like gods, but books hold a certain power. (The power is the experience of having read it, of course. But still.) I agree with Kondo, that "you are going to read very few of your books again." At least I have the excuse of citation: many of the underlines and notes make their way into articles and books. Books are also how I like to decorate.</p><p>It's the one step I'm not ready to take. Maybe in the future — <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5XptSCCciU" target="_blank">never is a promise</a> you should never make. Regardless, Marie Kondo has made a huge impact in our home. I'm just not letting her invade my library, though… yet.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a> and <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a>.</em></p>
The money will go to her foundation, but is the tour really in the 'Back to Black' chanteuse's best interest?
- Winehouse died of alcohol poisoning in 2011 at the age of 27.
- Los Angeles company BASE Hologram is set to put the show together, with a reported tour next year...
- ... but many of her fans aren't happy with the news.
Swedish band ABBA.
Photo: OLLE LINDEBORG/AFP/Getty Images
Twenty years ago, Nintendo asked America to try to catch 'em all. We still haven't (legitimately) captured a Mew.
- On Sept. 28, 1998, Pokémon Red and Blue came to the United States and asked children to catch 151 adorably abstract creatures.
- Today, Pokémon is the highest-grossing media franchise in the world, defeating the likes of Mickey Mouse, Star Wars, and Anpanman (trust us, it's a thing).
- In anticipation of another 20 years, we look back at fives ways Pokémon has influenced the United States.
Poké Shock<p><em>Pokémon</em>'s influence in the West began a full year before the first games were released stateside. In 1997, the <em>Pokémon</em> TV show entered our cultural consciousness by sending children to the hospital. (Not the most auspicious start for a product aimed at children.)</p><p>An episode of the show, titled "Dennō Senshi Porigon," sent several people into epileptic fits, and hundreds of children were rushed to the hospital. Some vomited blood, while others lost consciousness.</p><p>"I was watching TV but I [couldn't] remember anything at all when it was all over," <a href="https://tv.avclub.com/pokemon-shock-how-a-single-episode-almost-derailed-a-f-1798260019" target="_blank">one of the children said</a> of the incident. "As I was watching blue and red lights on the screen, I felt my body becoming tense. I do not remember what happened afterward."</p><p>These red and blue lights flashed at a frequency that triggered seizures in people with a condition called photosensitive epilepsy. <a href="https://www.wired.com/2007/06/mias-new-websit/" target="_blank">Photosensitive epileptics</a> have primary visual cortexes that are easily excited, and lights flashing between 5 and 30 times per second, like those featured in the episode, can induce seizures.</p><p>Nearly 700 people went to the hospital, but further research showed that <a href="https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/fits-to-be-tried/" target="_blank">only a handful</a> actually suffered photosensitive seizures. By then, however, the story had already gone international and been dubbed the "Pokémon Shock" incident.</p><p>Although we had <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/1994/01/12/us/some-seizures-tied-to-flashing-lights.html" target="_blank">known about the condition</a> years beforehand, the panic brought it widespread attention. Today, companies regularly put warnings on entertainment products that feature such effects, and <a href="https://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/?bn=A02507&term=2015" target="_blank">New York State</a> has enshrined such warnings in law. Thanks to social media, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2018/06/18/health/incredibles-2-seizures-warning-bn/index.html" target="_blank">companies that don't provide warnings</a> are quickly reminded of their responsibility to do so.</p><p>As for the infamous Pokémon episode, it never came stateside nor has it ever been rebroadcasted in Japan. </p>
Human sacrifice, lillipups and meowths living together, mass hysteria!<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xODY3MTc3NC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzMDY4OTM5Mn0.6GG8uutlLy1_VUFGlzJENv0cuvmO0TUgfvoFTCBaWN8/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C22%2C0%2C84&height=700" id="6ef17" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="53afdcf5cb1a1df10baefa06ab16d9f6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="\u200bA total of 1,500 Pikachus appear at the Yokohama landmarks in the Minato Mirai during the Pikachu Outbreak event on Aug. 10, 2018 " />
A total of 1,500 Pikachus appear at the Yokohama landmarks in the Minato Mirai during the Pikachu Outbreak event on Aug. 10, 2018
Photo by Tomohiro Ohsumi/Getty Images<p>When <em>Pokémon</em> reached the United States, parents quickly forgot to worry about their children's health and instead indulged in another all-American pastime: the moral panic. Pokémon became the de facto activity that was corrupting children's lives, but this time, we were importing it from another country.</p><p>Parents accused Pokémon of <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/28/us/violence-finds-a-niche-in-children-s-cartoons.html" target="_blank">promoting violence</a> and leading children down <a href="https://www.newsweek.com/pokemon-evil-164556" target="_blank">the immoral path</a>. Some even filed suit against Nintendo, claiming the trading cards were an "<a href="https://nypost.com/1999/09/24/lawsuit-slams-pokemon-as-bad-bet-for-addicted-kids/" target="_blank">illegal gambling enterprise</a>" design to create ankle-biting addicts. </p><p>"In my opinion parents should not let their kids watch Pokémon, play Pokémon, buy Pokémon cards, or have anything whatsoever to do with Pokémon," psychiatrist Carole Liberman told <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Dl7YF5Mr8Q&t=112s" target="_blank">MSNBC back in 1999</a>. "Because the message is violence."</p><p>America wasn't alone, though. Saudi Arabian religious authorities accused Pokémon of possessing the minds of children and issued a <a href="https://abcnews.go.com/International/story?id=81345&page=1" target="_blank">fatwa against the games.</a></p><p>"Parents who have had to suffer through the games, the TV series and shopping trips can take some comfort in the fact that the Pokémon demographic is the same one that has abandoned Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and Power Rangers," proclaimed Howard Chua-Eoan and Tim Larimer in <em><a href="http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,34342-4,00.html" target="_blank">Time</a></em>. "It's all Pokémon, all the time. At least until the next craze."</p><p>Twenty years later, we're still waiting for that next craze, but at least the parents have chilled out.</p>
Ani-mainstream<p>Anime has been a part of American culture for decades. In the 1960s, NBC brought Mighty Atom to the United States under the auspices of "Astro Boy." In the late '80s, <em>Akira</em> became an obsession for <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/film/2013/jul/10/akira-anime-japanese-cartoon-manga" target="_blank">midnight moviegoers</a>. But it wasn't until the late '90s that anime finally broke into Western pop culture to become a mainstay in its own right.</p><p>The <em>Pokémon</em> TV series helped introduce an entire generation of youngsters to kawaii-eyed protagonists, online debates over power scaling, and characters that move so fast the background can't keep up. Other important anime of this era included <em>Dragon Ball Z</em> for adolescent boys (and honestly girls too), <em>Sailor Moon </em>for adolescent girls (and honestly boys too), <em>Cowboy Bebop </em>for the adults, and <em>Neon Genesis Evangelion</em> for…well, you know who you are.</p><p>Anime may not be mainstream today, but it is certainly on its way. <em>Spirited Away</em> won an Oscar in 2003 (even if <a href="https://www.pbs.org/newshour/arts/anime-oscar-nominations-doesnt-matter" target="_blank">the genre has been snubbed ever since</a>). American cartoons such as <em>The Last Airbender</em> have drawn heavily from anime influences. And Crunchyroll, a streaming service dedicated to anime, has <a href="http://www.crunchyroll.com/anime-press-release/2017/02/09-1/largest-anime-streaming-service-crunchyroll-surpasses-one-million-paid-subscribers" target="_blank">more than 20 million registered users</a>.</p><p>While Pokémon may not be solely responsible for anime's foothold in the West, it was certainly among the vanguard of that important late '90s push.</p>
Get up and Go<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xODY3MTc2MC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzNzM4OTQ1MH0.lrunS8LjyKnafz4zRwOj3vr8U32moaPz9kqsrEfKG9g/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C92%2C0%2C0&height=700" id="1dd03" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2e4dcd1803bc1bf1fd6fdffd36288af9" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="People gather to play Nintendo's Pokemon Go augmented reality game during the Pokemon Go Stadium event at Yokohama Stadium" />
People gather to play Nintendo's Pokemon Go augmented reality game during the Pokemon Go Stadium event at Yokohama Stadium.
Photo by Tomohiro Ohsumi/Getty Images
Meta-gaming<p>Before <em>Pokémon</em>, franchises allowed children to collect toys and play as their favorite heroes. They could pretend to be Captain Kirk and learn all the ins and outs of the <em>USS Enterprise</em>, for example, but there was always a sharp dividing line between the world of <em>Star Trek</em> and their own. </p><p>Pokémon made this divide far more porous by mixing the franchise with role-playing elements. Children weren't just pretending to be Pokémon masters; they were becoming Pokémon masters by collecting the creatures, learning about their strengths and weaknesses, and memorizing rules that were just complex enough to be fun yet not daunting.<em></em></p><p>"Pokémon isn't just a game about cute animals fighting one another. That gives it a certain amount of initial appeal, but it earns a last [sic] attraction by offering up an esoteric rule set that is simultaneously simple enough for kids to understand while cryptic enough to confuse parents," writes <a href="https://venturebeat.com/2016/08/09/why-pokemon-still-matters-20-years-later/" target="_blank">Jeff Grubb</a>.</p><p>Grubb continues, "For many kids, this is one of the first chances they'll get to feel like a true expert on a subject, and that's a critical step in growing into an adult. You need to know that <a href="https://www.coreknowledge.org/blog/kids-love-knowing-stuff/" target="_blank">you have the capacity to learn something</a> that even your parents cannot grasp."</p><p>Pokémon offered children the opportunity to not simply play as something, but to invest in it in the same way adults come into their own profession: by learning and by actively engaging in it.</p>
Here's to another 20 years<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xODY3MTc5My9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY3MjE3ODc2N30.8ZuZP4W14Al32HX4P14nq90Sr4A7gSLlhOdiJZq7xwY/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C0%2C0%2C0&height=700" id="131b8" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="8cdc1d131047aebc383ddc50111b82b6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="A scene from the Pok\u00e9mon TV show's 1,000th episode, titled "The Professors' New Adventure," featuring protagonists Ash and Pikachu. The milestone episode aired this year." />
A scene from the Pokémon TV show's 1,000th episode, titled "The Professors' New Adventure," featuring protagonists Ash and Pikachu. The milestone episode aired this year.
Photo by The Pokemon Company International<p>Before Pokémon, Americans were no strangers to collection crazes. Parents rioted over Cabbage Patch Kids in the 1980s, and the early '90s saw adults trample each other to acquire <a href="https://www.history.com/news/beanie-babies-value-criminal-activity" target="_blank">Beanie Babies</a>. Nor were we unaware of the franchise marketing blitz. <em>Star Wars</em> proved that attaching the name of a popular franchise to anything was the corporate equivalent of inheriting a mint. </p><p>But what made Pokémon so special that it became <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_media_franchises" target="_blank">the highest-grossing media franchise</a> in the world? </p><p>Simply put, it was fun and the kind of fun that could <a href="https://psmag.com/social-justice/adult-world-competitive-pokemon-players-69445" target="_blank">grow with children</a>. Twenty years ago, trainers had to capture 151 Pokémon. Now there are <a href="https://www.pokemon.com/us/pokedex/" target="_blank">806 of the abstract beasties</a>. With new Pokémon comes new game mechanics that create ever more complex interactions for children to master, while maintaining that approachable core rule set. </p><p>And as the original trainers have grown up, they've introduced Pokémon to their own children and rediscovered the game themselves. This has resulted in a <a href="https://www.huffingtonpost.com/rachel-stine/the-pokemon-effect-how-20_b_9303926.html" target="_blank">cross-generational</a> experience shared by adults and children. As <a href="https://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2013/11/19/246023215/the-surprising-cultural-stamina-of-pokemon" target="_blank">NPR reports</a>, competitions in game stores can sport players aged 8 to 38.</p><p>If it looks as though Pokémania has died out, that's only because we've acclimated ourselves to it. In truth, these Japanese pocket monsters have become a much a part of American life as cowboys, Superman, and Mickey Mouse.</p><p>Here's to another 20 years and the next generation of Pokémon trainers!</p>