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Scientists discover why supermarket tomatoes taste so bland
A new genetic analysis reveals big differences between cultivated and wild tomatoes and domesticated, store-bought tomatoes.
- Scientists compared the genomes of 725 wild and cultivated tomatoes (a pan-genome) to the tomato genome that's used to represent all varieties.
- The representative genome was missing thousands of genes present in the pan-genome, including one that's responsible for imparting flavor to the vegetable.
- The good news is that breeders seem to have recently began selecting for flavor, so it's possible that store-bought tomatoes could soon start tasting better.
Ever wonder why those pale-orange tomatoes in the supermarket often taste so bland? A new study shows that 93 percent of modern, domesticated tomatoes are missing a version of a gene that gives tomatoes their signature flavor.
The culprit isn't genetic modification, but rather breeders who've long selected for desirable traits that yield the most economic return. Over time, flavor-enhancing genes have been lost or negatively selected during the breeding process. The result is that today's supermarket tomatoes lack genetic diversity, and therefore flavor.
"During the domestication and improvement of the tomato, people mostly focused on traits that would increase production, like fruit size and shelf-life," Zhangjun Fei, a plant geneticist at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, who led the new study, said in a statement. "Some genes involved in other important fruit quality traits and stress tolerance were lost during this process."
The researchers, who published their findings in the journal Nature Genetics, conducted the analysis by compiling the genetic information of 725 cultivated and wild tomatoes into a pan-genome, which represents the genetic information of all the strains. (The inclusion of wild tomatoes is especially important because they're more genetically diverse.) Then they compared this information to the domesticated tomato genome Heinz 1706, which is often used as a representative example of tomato genomes, according to Discover.
The comparison revealed that Heinz 1706 was missing some 5,000 genes that were found in the pan-genome. Importantly, the researchers found that most tomatoes you'd find in the supermarket lack a rare form of a gene that gives tomatoes flavor. However, this gene – TomLoxC – is found in 90 percent of wild varieties.
"TomLoxC appears, based on its sequence, to be involved in producing compounds from fats," James Giovannoni, a USDA scientist and co-author on the paper, said in a statement. "We found it also produces flavor compounds from carotenoids, which are the pigments that make a tomato red. So it had an additional function beyond what we expected, and an outcome that is interesting to people who enjoy eating flavorful tomatoes."
The researchers hope their analysis will provide a more comprehensive resource for the "mining of natural variation for future functional studies and molecular breeding." In the meantime, it's possible that tomato breeders will start to return flavor to the vegetables on their own. Giovanni explained that TomLoxC is becoming more prevalent in modern, domesticated tomatoes, even compared to just a few years ago. The likely answer is that some breeders have begun to select for flavor.
Boosting the flavor of tomatoes could make a big difference in how we enjoy our meals, considering that tomatoes play a big role in most diets. For example, in the U.S., Americans eat an average of 20.3 pounds of tomatoes and 73.3 pounds of processed tomatoes each year.
Ever since we've had the technology, we've looked to the stars in search of alien life. It's assumed that we're looking because we want to find other life in the universe, but what if we're looking to make sure there isn't any?
Here's an equation, and a rather distressing one at that: N = R* × fP × ne × f1 × fi × fc × L. It's the Drake equation, and it describes the number of alien civilizations in our galaxy with whom we might be able to communicate. Its terms correspond to values such as the fraction of stars with planets, the fraction of planets on which life could emerge, the fraction of planets that can support intelligent life, and so on. Using conservative estimates, the minimum result of this equation is 20. There ought to be 20 intelligent alien civilizations in the Milky Way that we can contact and who can contact us. But there aren't any.
Building a personal connection with students can counteract some negative side effects of remote learning.
- Not being able to engage with students in-person due to the pandemic has presented several new challenges for educators, both technical and social. Digital tools have changed the way we all think about learning, but George Couros argues that more needs to be done to make up for what has been lost during "emergency remote teaching."
- One interesting way he has seen to bridge that gap and strengthen teacher-student and student-student relationships is through an event called Identity Day. Giving students the opportunity to share something they are passionate about makes them feel more connected and gets them involved in their education.
- "My hope is that we take these skills and these abilities we're developing through this process and we actually become so much better for our kids when we get back to our face-to-face setting," Couros says. He adds that while no one can predict the future, we can all do our part to adapt to it.
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.