How the keto diet could give Navy SEALs a tactical advantage
Could ketosis be the answer to preventing deadly seizures during deep-diving missions?
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- The U.S. military has been funding research exploring how the keto diet might benefit soldiers during deep-diving missions.
- The technology that Navy SEALs use to stay hidden underwater can lead to seizures. Studies suggest ketosis might prevent these seizures.
- Still, ethical and legal questions remain, and researchers hope to continue learning more about how ketosis might yield advantages on the battlefield.
The keto diet could soon give Navy SEALs a tactical advantage in battle: The ability to spend more time underwater.
The keto diet — high in fat, moderate in protein, low in carbs — puts the body in a natural metabolic state called ketosis. In ketosis, brain cells burn ketones instead of glucose for fuel. Studies suggest that this state prevents people from having a seizure, which is a major risk for special-operations divers who use closed-circuit rebreathers on their oxygen supplies. These devices minimize the amount of bubbles that appear on the water's surface — crucial for stealth missions — but also increase the risk of seizure, convulsions and nausea, all of which can be deadly during a mission.
"One of the effects of truly being in ketosis is that it changes the way your body handles oxygen deprivation, so you can actually stay underwater at [deeper] depths for longer periods of time and not go into oxygen seizures," Lisa Sanders, director of science and technology at U.S. Special Operations Command, said at a high-level defense industry conference in Tampa in May, as the Washington Times reported.
For years, the U.S. military has funded research exploring how ketosis might benefit divers. The leading example is a 2015 study led by Dominic D'Agostino, a neuroscientist at the University of South Florida. D'Agostino and his team gave ketone supplements to rats and placed them in hyperbaric chambers that simulated deep-diving conditions. The results showed that, compared to a control group, rats on ketone supplements had fewer seizures. Also, these rats performed better on physical and cognitive tests.
But just because there's a clear link between ketosis and fewer seizures doesn't mean it's ethical or legal to command soldiers to stick to a particular diet — especially one as controversial (and potentially dangerous, if implemented incorrectly) as keto.
"... I don't have the authority to tell people — swimmers, submariners, etc. — that they're going to get themselves in ketosis so they can stay in the water longer," Sanders said at the defense industry event. "That's an authority question, not a technology question."
What's more, it's possible that radically changing soldiers' diets could have unpredictable consequences.
"For me, it smacks of the removal of free will from one of the most basic of biological functions: eating and consuming energy. It's also one that misunderstands and misrepresents how a biological organism works," E. Paul Zehr, a neuroscientist and biomedical research scholar at Canada's University of Victoria, told Business Insider. "Biological beings are not automatons or machines. You can't just attempt to optimize one thing and not have it alter something else. All systems … exist in a balance."
Ultimately, soldiers may simply decide for themselves whether the diet is right. Future research will hopefully help them make informed decisions.
"We are motivated to perform larger and more comprehensive studies aimed at elucidating therapeutic and health/performance benefits of ketosis for military members," Jeff Volek, a professor in the Department of Human Sciences at the Ohio State University who's conducted research on military personnel and keto, told Business Insider. "We have submitted several grants over the years and continue to do so to move this from hypothesis to the lab to the battlefield."
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Whether or not women think beards are sexy has to do with "moral disgust"
- A new study found that women perceive men with facial hair to be more attractive as well as physically and socially dominant.
- Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength, social assertiveness, and formidability.
- Women who display higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, are more likely to prefer hairy faces.
Beards and perceptions of masculinity<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg0MC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NzkxMjM3N30.cH-GqNwP5GVqvstgJWAhBPn1B_lYpVEAI0I7iax7EQw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C1900%2C0%2C849&height=700" id="caae6" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="cb0a355a4e8e1899789bc45f3f7aef56" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Photo Credit: Wikimedia<p>The study used 919 American (mostly white) women ages 18-70 who rated 30 pictures of men they were shown with various stages of facial hair growth. The photographs depicted men with faces that had been digitally altered to look more feminine or more masculine, with a beard and without a beard. The women rated the men according to perceived attractiveness for long-term and short-term relationships. The study found that the more facial hair the men had, the higher the men were rated on their attractiveness, particularly for their suitability for a long-term relationship.</p><p>Part of this might be attributed to facial masculinity — i.e. protruding brow ridge, wide cheekbones, thick jawline, and deeply set narrow eyes — which conveys information to a woman about a man's underlying health and formidability. Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength and social assertiveness. It can also indicate a man with a superior immune response. The researchers suggested that their findings favoring bearded men could be due to the fact that facial hair enhances the masculine facial features on a man's face, like creating the illusion of a thicker jaw line. This could communicate direct benefits to women like resources and protection that would enhance survival among mothers and their infants. In other words, while a beard doesn't mean superior genetics in and of itself, it might be a primitive, ornamental way of saying, "Hey girl, I'm a testosterone-fueled lean, mean, pathogen fighting machine." <br></p><p>It could also be that a beard becomes its own destiny. The researchers in this study cite prior research that found that by growing a beard, men felt more masculine and had higher levels of serum testosterone, which was linked to a higher level of social dominance. They also tended to subscribe to more old-school beliefs about gender roles in their relationships with women as compared to men with clean-shaven faces.<span></span><br></p>
What does disgust have to do with beard preference?<p>Obviously, not all women dig beards. The researchers were particularly interested in what traits make a women prefer bearded men over clean-shaven faces. They looked into several factors including a woman's disgust levels on various concepts, her desire to become pregnant, and her exposure to facial hair in her personal life. </p><p>According to the study, women who were not into facial hair were turned-off by potential parasites or other critters they imagined could be in the hair or skin. Women ranking high on this "ectoparasite disgust" scale might have viewed beards as a sign of poor grooming habits. However, women who ranked higher in levels of "pathogen" did find the bearded men to be desirable, possibly because they perceived beards as a signal of good health and immune function. An intriguing discovery in the study was links to morality. Women who displayed higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, were more likely to prefer hairy faces. The authors opined that this could reflect a link between beardedness, politically conservative outlooks, and traditional views regarding performances of masculinity in heterosexual relationships.</p>
Additional findings<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg1My9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNDI1NjUyOX0.P9B8WbmJR0q4nfzYZKbuNSA-2SAigVWJgrQE-_Gxlds/img.gif?width=980" id="49143" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2ed3b1d6f20fc170bf2974646e565e8d" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />Giphy<p>The correlations that existed between married and single women's rating on the attractiveness of beards were not particularly clear, although the researchers noted that single and married women who wanted children tended to find beards more attractive than the women who didn't want children. They also found that women with bearded husbands found beards to be more attractive, which might indicate that social exposure to beards influences how desirable they are perceived of as being. Or it could be that men with wives who like beards grow beards.</p><p>It's important to note that culture plays a huge role in how attractive women perceive certain male characteristics as being. This study looked at a small, culturally specific group of American women, so no big, universal claims should be made about masculinity, facial hair, and male desirability to women. However, research like this is important in highlighting how human grooming decisions are driven by much more than fashion trends. Sociobiological, economic, and ecological factors all play a part in the way we choose to present ourselves.</p>
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