The Short Life of Little Germany, New York's First Ethnic Enclave
The wreck of the General Slocum in 1904 broke the spirit of Manhattan's German enclave
From a young age, Frank was fascinated by maps and atlases, and the stories they contained. Finding his birthplace on the map in the endpapers of Tolkien's Lord of the Rings only increased his interest in the mystery and message of maps.
While pursuing a career in journalism, Frank started a blog called Strange Maps, as a repository for the weird and wonderful cartography he found hidden in books, posing as everyday objects and (of course) floating around the Internet.
"Each map tells a story, but the stories told by your standard atlas for school or reference are limited and literal: they show only the most practical side of the world, its geography and its political divisions. Strange Maps aims to collect and comment on maps that do everything but that - maps that show the world from a different angle".
A remit that wide allows for a steady, varied diet of maps: Frank has been writing about strange maps since 2006, published a book on the subject in 2009 and joined Big Think in 2010. Readers send in new material daily, and he keeps bumping in to cartography that is delightfully obscure, amazingly beautiful, shockingly partisan, and more.
Almost 113 years ago, New York suffered the second-deadliest disaster in its history. Only 9/11 would claim more lives than the wreck of the General Slocum  on 15 June 1904. The 1,021 people who burned alive on board or drowned in the East River while fleeing the flames represented a single, but pivotal percent of Little Germany. Their deaths hastened the demise of one of Manhattan's oldest ethnic enclaves.
Little Germany was the first major non-Anglophone ethnic enclave in New York. Though little remains of it today, its start (in the 1850s), flowering (from the 1870s) and eventual disappearance (by the 1920s) beat a path through New York's urban jungle followed by countless other ethnic neighbourhoods since - if only by its fluidity and impermanence.
The enclave started small, in New York City's 11th ward. It was centred around Tompkins Square, which the Germans called der Weisse Garten ('the White Garden'), in an area now known as Alphabet City. Eventually, it would include 400 city blocks on Manhattan's Lower East Side. Known to its inhabitants by the diminutives Kleindeutschland or Deutschländle (the second a distinctly southern German variant), Little Germany was also called Dutchtown , mainly by the Irish immigrants who dominated a few of the neighbouring wards.
Germans had been migrating to North America ever since a Dr. Johannes Fleischer was present at the founding of Jamestown in 1607, thus becoming the very first documented German-American. The greatest influx of Germans occurred between 1820 and 1914, when a total of 6 million made it to the US .
Many came in through Ellis Island, and a lot of those stayed in New York. In 1860, the city counted over 120,000 German-born inhabitants, making New York the world's third-largest German-speaking city, after Berlin and Vienna.
The new arrivals repeated a common migration pattern: they sought out the mutual support network created by compatriots who had preceded them, thus reinforcing the 'German' character of a specific area. Kleindeutschland was riddled with German schools and churches, hospitals and shops. Much of the social glue was provided by sports clubs, shooting associations and Gesangvereine (i.e. singing societies) . Around 1870, Kleindeutschland encompassed much of the Lower East Side, from 14th Street in the north to Division and Grand Streets in the south. The East River formed its natural boundary to the east, while its western end coincided with the Bowery, except between Houston and Canal Streets, where it extended to Mott Street; and in the north (where the Bowery turns into 4th Avenue), and it only went as far as 3rd Avenue.
To outsiders, Little Germany may have appeared a chaotic cauldron of otherness, but like many ethnic enclaves before and since, it was in fact itself a delicate balance of the regional differences back home. Germans from particular areas in the old country tended to congregate in the same neighbourhoods of their new home.
- The 10th ward saw the heaviest concentration of Prussians, who by 1880 represented about 30% of the city's German-born population.
- In the 1860s, the 13th ward was the focal point for Hessians, who later migrated north towards the 11th and 17th wards. By the 1880s, the 13th ward had become a popular destination for immigrants from Baden. And particularly for Hanoverians, who formed their own 'Little Hanover' in the 13th.
- By the 1860s, Wurttembergers had started moving into the 17th ward, from areas further south.
- Curiously, Prussians and Bavarians seemed repelled by each other's presence. Bavarians were spread evenly throughout Little Germany, but usually inversely with Prussians. They were fewest in the 'Prussian' 10th ward.
Little Germany peaked in the 1870s. By then, successful residents would celebrate their accession to the American middle class by moving away from their roots, both geographically and culturally. They were replaced by first-generation immigrants from other backgrounds. So Kleindeutschland was already on the decline in 1904, when the local St. Mark's Lutheran Church organised its 17th annual summer picnic.
The German church had chartered the paddle steamer General Slocum to transport 1,300 of its congregants to a picnic spot on Long Island. As the three-decked ship passed 81st Street, a fire broke out in the lamp room.
The captain first disbelieved, then underestimated the fire. The ship's rotten firehoses proved useless to fight the blaze, its broken lifeboats incapable of providing an escape from it. When flames engulfed the ship, victims either burned to death or jumped overboard to drown in the river. Fewer than 300 passengers survived.
The General Slocum disaster broke the spirit of the local community. Recriminations reverberated, outward migration accelerated. There was a marked increase in the number of suicides in the area. Kleindeutschland evaporated – also because the area remained a focus for immigration. The Lower East Side became a centre of Jewish life, later of Portorican and Dominican immigration – and more recently of gentrification.
As an earlier map posted on this website shows, the borders and names of Manhattan neighbourhoods are very much up for discussion. Especially if they reflect an ethnic reality, these names become obsolete as that reality changes. What was once known as Little Italy has been absorbed almost entirely by Chinatown (which itself is sprouting such subdivisions as 'Little Fuzhou', after immigrants from China's Fujian province). Spanish Harlem was better known as Italian Harlem before 1940. And Loisaidia, deriving from the Hispanic pronunciation of 'Lower East Side', denotes an area of Alphabet City around Avenue C, in what used to be known as Little Germany.
Perhaps Little Germany's most enduring legacy in New York is that diminutive, still the natural prefix for any area dominated by a particular ethnicity. Apart from that vestigial Little Italy, New York today also boasts a Little Greece and a Little Poland, a Little Brazil and a Little Egypt, and not only a Little India but also a Little Punjab, and even two Little Pakistans. And that's not even including areas named after cities rather than countries, like Little Saigon and Little Manila.
For more on the General Slocum disaster, see this piece in the Magazine at BBC News . The black and white map of Kleindeutschland taken here from this genealogy article on Stride Writer, the personal website of Gene Landriau. The map of NYC wards taken here from Demographia, a website dedicated to urban development. The colour map of the German and Irish wards in lower Manhattan taken here from what appears to be a defunct website dedicated to the General Slocum disaster.
Strange Maps #663
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 The incident is mentioned in James Joyce's Ulysses, which is set one day after the disaster, on 16 June 1904: “Yes, sir. Terrible affair that General Slocum explosion. Terrible, terrible! A thousand casualties. And heartrending scenes. Men trampling down women and children. Most brutal thing. What do they say was the cause? Spontaneous combustion. Most scandalous revelation. Not a single lifeboat would float and the firehose all burst. What I can't understand is how the inspectors ever allowed a boat like that... Now, you're talking straight, Mr Crimmins. You know why? Palm oil. Is that a fact? Without a doubt. Well now, look at that. And America they say is the land of the free. I thought we were bad here.” ↩
 Thus repeating the common confusion in English between the people and language of the Netherlands (Dutch in English, Nederlanders and Nederlands in Dutch) and the people and language of Germany (German in English, Deutsche and Deutsch in German). See also Dutch Country in Pennsylvania, named after Germans who spoke Deutsch, not people from the Netherlands who spoke Dutch. The original confusion of course was naming the language of the Netherlands Dutch and not Netherlandic. ↩
 There are close to 50 million Americans of German descent, representing 17% of the population, and making German-Americans the largest ethnic heritage group in the United States, before African-Americans (41 million), Irish-Americans (35 million), Mexican-Americans (32 million), English-Americans (27 million), Italian-Americans (17 million), Polish-Americans (10 million) and French-Americans (9 million). Intermarriage has of course blurred these categories, which are often reported with different figures, depending on how you count. More info here. ↩
 Perhaps the most prominent singing society was the Deutscher Liederkranz, which had about 350 members by 1860, and over 1,000 by 1870. At that time, its leaders were the piano manufacturer William Steinway and Oswald Ottendorfer, publisher of the New-Yorker Staats-Zeitung, a major German-language newspaper. By 1863, a Liederkranz Hall was built on East 4th Street. By 1881, it was moved north to East 58th Street, mirroring the northward migration of German-Americans themselves. The Liederkranz, also known by its abbreviation as Elka, lives on in the name of Elka Park, a summer holiday spot in the Catskills in upstate New York, founded by and for wealthy German-Americans. ↩
Ready your Schrödinger's Cat Jokes.
- For a time, quantum computing was more theory than fact.
- That's starting to change.
- New quantum computer designs look like they might be scalable.
Quantum computing has existed in theory since the 1980's. It's slowly making its way into fact, the latest of which can be seen in a paper published in Nature called, "Deterministic teleportation of a quantum gate between two logical qubits."
To ensure that we're all familiar with a few basic terms: in electronics, a 'logic gate' is something that takes in one or more than one binary inputs and produces a single binary output. To put it in reductive terms: if you produce information that goes into a chip in your computer as a '0,' the logic gate is what sends it out the other side as a '1.'
A quantum gate means that the '1' in question here can — roughly speaking — go back through the gate and become a '0' once again. But that's not quite the whole of it.
A qubit is a single unit of quantum information. To continue with our simple analogy: you don't have to think about computers producing a string of information that is either a zero or a one. A quantum computer can do both, simultaneously. But that can only happen if you build a functional quantum gate.
That's why the results of the study from the folks at The Yale Quantum Institute saying that they were able to create a quantum gate with a "process fidelity" of 79% is so striking. It could very well spell the beginning of the pathway towards realistic quantum computing.
The team went about doing this through using a superconducting microwave cavity to create a data qubit — that is, they used a device that operates a bit like a organ pipe or a music box but for microwave frequencies. They paired that data qubit with a transmon — that is, a superconducting qubit that isn't as sensitive to quantum noise as it otherwise could be, which is a good thing, because noise can destroy information stored in a quantum state. The two are then connected through a process called a 'quantum bus.'
That process translates into a quantum property being able to be sent from one location to the other without any interaction between the two through something called a teleported CNOT gate, which is the 'official' name for a quantum gate. Single qubits made the leap from one side of the gate to the other with a high degree of accuracy.
Above: encoded qubits and 'CNOT Truth table,' i.e., the read-out.
The team then entangled these bits of information as a way of further proving that they were literally transporting the qubit from one place to somewhere else. They then analyzed the space between the quantum points to determine that something that doesn't follow the classical definition of physics occurred.
They conclude by noting that "... the teleported gate … uses relatively modest elements, all of which are part of the standard toolbox for quantum computation in general. Therefore ... progress to improve any of the elements will directly increase gate performance."
In other words: they did something simple and did it well. And that the only forward here is up. And down. At the same time.
These modern-day hermits can sometimes spend decades without ever leaving their apartments.
- A hikikomori is a type of person in Japan who locks themselves away in their bedrooms, sometimes for years.
- This is a relatively new phenomenon in Japan, likely due to rigid social customs and high expectations for academic and business success.
- Many believe hikikomori to be a result of how Japan interprets and handles mental health issues.
How a cataclysm worse than what killed the dinosaurs destroyed 90 percent of all life on Earth.
While the demise of the dinosaurs gets more attention as far as mass extinctions go, an even more disastrous event called "the Great Dying” or the “End-Permian Extinction” happened on Earth prior to that. Now scientists discovered how this cataclysm, which took place about 250 million years ago, managed to kill off more than 90 percent of all life on the planet.
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