Is It Ethical to Program Robots to Kill Us?
A new study highlights the new ethical dilemmas caused by the rise of robotic and autonomous technology, like self-driving cars.
As robots and robotic contraptions like self-driving cars become increasingly ubiquitous in our lives, we are having to address significant ethical issues that arise.
One area of most immediate concern - the moral dilemmas that might be faced by self-driving cars, which are close to coming to the road near you. You can program them with all kinds of safety features, but it's easy to imagine scenarios when the programmed rules by which a car like that operates would come into conflict with each other.
For example, what if you had a situation when a car would have to choose between hitting a pedestrian or hurting the car's passengers? Or what if it has to choose between two equally dangerous maneuvers where people would get hurt in each scenario like hitting a bus or a motorcycle driver?
A new study demonstrates that the public is also having a hard time deciding on what choice the car should make in such potential situations. People would prefer to minimize casualties, and would hypothetically rather have the car make the choice to swerve and harm one driver to avoid hitting 10 pedestrians. But the same people would not want to buy and drive such a vehicle. They wouldn't want their car to not have their safety as the prime directive.
"Most people want to live in in a world where cars will minimize casualties," says Iyad Rahwan, the co-author of a paper on the study and an associate professor in the MIT Media Lab. "But everybody want their own car to protect them at all costs. If everybody does that, then we would end up in a tragedy... whereby the cars will not minimize casualties".
Check out this great animation that ponders the questions raised by autonomous cars:
The numbers work out this way - 76% of respondents thought it more moral for a self-driving car to sacrifice one passenger over 10 pedestrians. But if they were to ride in such a car, the percentage dropped by a third. Most of the people also opposed any kind of government regulation over such vehicles, afraid that the government would essentially be choosing who lives and dies in various situations.
The researchers themselves do not have the easy answer. They think that:
"For the time being, there seems to be no easy way to design algorithms that would reconcile moral values and personal self-interest."
Still, as there is a great potential in self-driving vehicles generally eliminating human error and thus, the amount of car accidents, there is a need to figure this out.
The researchers point out that:
"This is a challenge that should be on the mind of carmakers and regulators alike."
And the long deliberation might also be counter-productive as it:
"may paradoxically increase casualties by postponing the adoption of a safer technology."
You can read their paper "The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles" here, in the journal "Science". Besides Rahwan, the paper is written by Jean-Francois Bonnefon of the Toulouse School of Economics, and Azim Shariff, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Oregon.
Sci-fi writer Isaac Asimov famously formulated “The Three Laws of Robotics” all the way back in 1942. Their ethical implications still resonate today. The Three Laws are:
1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws.
Perhaps in anticipation of a Skynet/Terminator-style robotic takeover, Asimov later added the fourth law that would supercede all the others: “0. A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.”
Of course, while we debate such questions and figure out who is going to program them into our robotic helpers, the challenge will become - how do you avoid hackers or the robot itself from changing the code? Who controls the code? The government, the corporation or the individual?
Other social questions will rise with further integration of technology into our lives. For example:
Is it cheating if you sleep with a sex robot?
The 'True Companion' sex robot, Roxxxy, on display at the TrueCompanion.com booth at the AVN Adult Entertainment Expo in Las Vegas, Nevada, January 9, 2010. In what is billed as a world first, a life-size robotic girlfriend complete with artificial intelligence and flesh-like synthetic skin was introduced to adoring fans at the AVN Adult Entertainment Expo. (Photo by ROBYN BECK/AFP/Getty Images)
What if are yourself a part-robot, a human with cybernetic implants or robotic enhancements? What are your responsibilities towards an “unaltered” human? Is there a new caste system that will arise based on the scale from human to robot?
Surely, you can come up with more such quandaries. You can be sure to have to ponder more of them as we are already in the future we have envisioned.
To create wiser adults, add empathy to the school curriculum.
- Stories are at the heart of learning, writes Cleary Vaughan-Lee, Executive Director for the Global Oneness Project. They have always challenged us to think beyond ourselves, expanding our experience and revealing deep truths.
- Vaughan-Lee explains 6 ways that storytelling can foster empathy and deliver powerful learning experiences.
- Global Oneness Project is a free library of stories—containing short documentaries, photo essays, and essays—that each contain a companion lesson plan and learning activities for students so they can expand their experience of the world.
Philosophers like to present their works as if everything before it was wrong. Sometimes, they even say they have ended the need for more philosophy. So, what happens when somebody realizes they were mistaken?
Sometimes philosophers are wrong and admitting that you could be wrong is a big part of being a real philosopher. While most philosophers make minor adjustments to their arguments to correct for mistakes, others make large shifts in their thinking. Here, we have four philosophers who went back on what they said earlier in often radical ways.
Numerous U.S. Presidents invoked the Insurrection Act to to quell race and labor riots.
- U.S. Presidents have invoked the Insurrection Act on numerous occasions.
- The controversial law gives the President some power to bring in troops to police the American people.
- The Act has been used mainly to restore order following race and labor riots.
It looks like a busy hurricane season ahead. Probably.
- Before the hurricane season even started in 2020, Arthur and Bertha had already blown through, and Cristobal may be brewing right now.
- Weather forecasters see signs of a rough season ahead, with just a couple of reasons why maybe not.
- Where's an El Niño when you need one?
Welcome to Hurricane Season 2020. 2020, of course, scoffs at this calendric event much as it has everything else that's normal — meteorologists have already used up the year's A and B storm names before we even got here. And while early storms don't necessarily mean a bruising season ahead, forecasters expect an active season this year. Maybe storms will blow away the murder hornets and 13-year locusts we had planned.
NOAA expects a busy season
According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, an agency of the National Weather Service, there's a 60 percent chance that we're embarking upon a season with more storms than normal. There does, however, remain a 30 percent it'll be normal. Better than usual? Unlikely: Just a 10 percent chance.
Where a normal hurricane season has an average of 12 named storms, 6 of which become hurricanes and 3 of which are major hurricanes, the Climate Prediction Center reckons we're on track for 13 to 29 storms, 6 to 10 of which will become hurricanes, and 3 to 6 of these will be category 3, 4, or 5, packing winds of 111 mph or higher.
What has forecasters concerned are two factors in particular.
This year's El Niño ("Little Boy") looks to be more of a La Niña ("Little Girl"). The two conditions are part of what's called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, which describes temperature fluctuations between the ocean and atmosphere in the east-central Equatorial Pacific. With an El Niño, waters in the Pacific are unusually warm, whereas a La Niña means unusually cool waters. NOAA says that an El Niño can suppress hurricane formation in the Atlantic, and this year that mitigating effect is unlikely to be present.
Second, current conditions in the Atlantic and Caribbean suggest a fertile hurricane environment:
- The ocean there is warmer than usual.
- There's reduced vertical wind shear.
- Atlantic tropical trade winds are weak.
- There have been strong West African monsoons this year.
Here's NOAA's video laying out their forecast:
ArsTechnica spoke to hurricane scientist Phil Klotzbach, who agrees generally with NOAA, saying, "All in all, signs are certainly pointing towards an active season." Still, he notes a couple of signals that contradict that worrying outlook.
First off, Klotzbach notes that the surest sign of a rough hurricane season is when its earliest storms form in the deep tropics south of 25°N and east of the Lesser Antilles. "When you get storm formations here prior to June 1, it's typically a harbinger of an extremely active season." Fortunately, this year's hurricanes Arthur and Bertha, as well as the maybe-imminent Cristobal, formed outside this region. So there's that.
Second, Klotzbach notes that the correlation between early storm activity and a season's number of storms and intensities, is actually slightly negative. So while statistical connections aren't strongly predictive, there's at least some reason to think these early storms may augur an easy season ahead.
Image source: NOAA
Batten down the hatches early
If 2020's taught us anything, it's how to juggle multiple crises at once, and layering an active hurricane season on top of SARS-CoV-2 — not to mention everything else — poses a special challenge. Warns Treasury Secretary Wilbur Ross, "As Americans focus their attention on a safe and healthy reopening of our country, it remains critically important that we also remember to make the necessary preparations for the upcoming hurricane season." If, as many medical experts expect, we're forced back into quarantine by additional coronavirus waves, the oceanic waves slamming against our shores will best be met by storm preparations put in place in a less last-minute fashion than usual.
Ross adds, "Just as in years past, NOAA experts will stay ahead of developing hurricanes and tropical storms and provide the forecasts and warnings we depend on to stay safe."
Let's hope this, at least, can be counted on in this crazy year.
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