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'Intolerant' white people are more likely to accept authoritarianism. Here's why.
A study finds a link between intolerant attitudes among some Americans and support for anti-democratic measures and army rule.
Democracy is a bedrock American principle. Or is it? A new study shows that people are willing to accept much less democracy and more authoritarianism if that helps them protect their kind from what they perceive are potential threats. The implications of this are not hard to see already in everyday American life as the country finds itself in a debate over the forced separation of immigrant families at its border.
The inhumanity of this practice could have been inconceivable under previous administrations like that of the Republican President Reagan. But in the United States of 2018, led by Donald Trump, treating refugees like criminals, including a traumatic splitting of small kids from their parents, has become reasonably acceptable to a certain segment of the population.
In a working paper released by political scientists Steven V. Miller of Clemson University and Nicholas T. Davis of Texas A&M, the two argue that there is a connection between the intolerance of some white Americans and support for authoritarian rule. The study, titled “White Outgroup Intolerance and Declining Support for American Democracy," found that when intolerant white people are afraid that democracy can be of benefit to marginalized people, they are willing to abandon democratic norms.
It goes even further, as “white Americans who exhibit social intolerance are more likely to dismiss the value of separation of powers and to support army rule," write the researchers.
Miller and David relied on information from the World Values Survey gathered from 1995 to 2011. This survey is a research project ran by a worldwide network of scientists that has them polling individuals across various countries about their beliefs and values. Data from the U.S. showed that white people who did not want immigrants or people of different races living next to them were also more supportive of authoritarianism.
A man wearing a shirt with swastikas is forced away from the scene by the crowd moments before being punched by an unidentified member of the crowd near the site of a planned speech by white nationalist Richard Spencer, who popularized the term 'alt-right', at the University of Florida campus on October 19, 2017 in Gainesville, Florida. (Photo by Brian Blanco/Getty Images)
In one example, people who didn't want to have neighbors who were immigrants or belonged to a different race were also more supportive of potential military rule or having a strongman leader. It was ok with them to have a leader going against the legislature and the results of elections. The researchers believe this shows that bigotry and authoritarianism are very much interlinked.
In an exchange with Noah Berlatsky who writes for NBC News, Steven Miller pointed to the fact that demographic data is not favoring white people in America. As they continue to decrease a portion of the U.S. population, the GOP has increasingly come to represent the "aggrieved" interests of this group.
"Since Richard Nixon's 'Southern Strategy,' the GOP has pigeon-holed itself as, in large part, an aggrieved white people's party," Miller said. "The GOP has dug itself into such a hole on this that the most practical effort to stave off these impending losses is to disenfranchise the votes of the same ethnic/racial outgroups against whom GOP messaging has been stoking animosity."
In a country that is currently under the control of the GOP, especially in the absence of strong leadership in the Democratic party, the challenge to America's democratic norms is well underway. The issue becomes even more troubling if you consider, as do the scientists, that they used data from before Trump's era. That means the anti-democratic trends among some Americans have been “hiding in plain sight" this whole time. The scientists dub this “democracy's gangrene" in a chilling epithet. Whether their view is incontrovertible reality or an indication of a slippery moral slope on which we find ourselves remains to be seen as we continue to separate kids and parents like it was the 1930s.
Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.
Men take longer to clear COVID-19 from their systems; a male-only coronavirus repository may be why.
- A new study found that women clear coronavirus from their systems much faster than men.
- The researchers hypothesize that high concentrations of ACE2-expressing cells in the testes may store more coronavirus.
- There are many confounding factors to this mystery—some genetic, others social and behavioral.
Where is coronavirus hiding?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzE1NTgxNy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0ODY4NzkxMX0.D84W6ZUOhv6Q-Ki7ddiF3zmDLK_Z6vuXtzfB9R8zLAA/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C179%2C0%2C180&height=700" id="1cc38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="b4e083fb45357e1fb56a8571e8cdc553" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
A laboratory technician at Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, holds a container of test-tube samples from people tested for novel coronavirus.
Further research required<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="z9vH49bb" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="7ef1ab8ca2f90b28543d580c408ed25f"> <div id="botr_z9vH49bb_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/z9vH49bb-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/z9vH49bb-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/z9vH49bb-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div> <p>The Montefiore-Einstein study is currently preliminary, and further research will be required before researchers can determine what, if anything, its results illuminate.</p><p>The study is currently published on <em>Medrxiv</em>, a <a href="https://www.aje.com/arc/benefits-of-preprints-for-researchers/" target="_blank">preprint</a> distributor. This means the study has been shared publicly before undergoing the <a href="https://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/howscienceworks_16" target="_blank">peer-review process</a>.</p><p>Preprints allow researchers to communicate their findings before official publication, which can take months if not a year or longer. This pre-publication can lead to early feedback, increased visibility, and new collaborations. It's especially helpful for <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6400415/" target="_blank">early-career researchers</a> trying to establish themselves.</p><p>However, given the speed at which coronavirus is spreading, researchers have leaned on preprints as a means of disseminating data to other experts faster than the peer review allows. As a result, <em>Medrixiv</em> has seen a <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/14/science/coronavirus-disinformation.html" target="_blank">surge of preprint studies</a>, but they must be read within the context of their preliminary status.</p><p>The Montefiore-Einstein also has its limitations. The study had an initial sample size of only 68 subjects (48 males, 20 females) and a further examination of three families. And the connection of coronavirus to ACE2 enzymes in the testes came from database research, not direct observation.</p><p>The researchers acknowledge the need for further investigation. In particular, Shastri stresses the need to confirm the coronavirus's ability to infect and multiply in testicular tissue. If other researchers find their data promising, they could move forward with new research to build upon the study and see if this clue fits into the mystery.</p>
One clue among many<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzE1NTc5NS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNTQ3NjEzMX0.G-p4KniVRhsHXoIOyFfzEARdN5nGXWWkkQa85x6_ooM/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C281%2C0%2C298&height=700" id="d50c6" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="938d51b21df264aae5e883e5f1f9c894" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Coronavirus protesters in Los Angeles. Men are more likely than women to disregard health warnings from officials.
The word "learning" opens up space for more people, places, and ideas.
- The terms 'education' and 'learning' are often used interchangeably, but there is a cultural connotation to the former that can be limiting. Education naturally links to schooling, which is only one form of learning.
- Gregg Behr, founder and co-chair of Remake Learning, believes that this small word shift opens up the possibilities in terms of how and where learning can happen. It also becomes a more inclusive practice, welcoming in a larger, more diverse group of thinkers.
- Post-COVID, the way we think about what learning looks like will inevitably change, so it's crucial to adjust and begin building the necessary support systems today.
The coronavirus pandemic has brought out the perception of selfishness among many.
- Selfish behavior has been analyzed by philosophers and psychologists for centuries.
- New research shows people may be wired for altruistic behavior and get more benefits from it.
- Crisis times tend to increase self-centered acts.