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5 of the strangest psychology cases in history
Famously unusual case studies that perplexed psychologists.
- Psychologists are faced with many patient mysteries.
- The cases reveal the complexity of humans.
- Neurologist Oliver Sacks wrote about a number of very strange cases.
As billions of people fade in and out of history on this dusty rock, there are bound to be many strange ones. With the advent of psychology, the study of those who don't fit the norm have provided many invaluable clues about who we are as a species, what we want as individuals, how our brains work, as well as shining a light on our deepest, darkest needs.
Here are 5 of the most unusual psychology cases that remind us of the underlying mysteries that make us human.
1. The Wild Boy of Aveyron
In 1800, a boy came out of the Aveyron forest in France. He was aged 11 or 12 and seemingly lived in the woods on his own for a number of years. The "feral child" didn't know any language and was named "Victor" by the physician Jean Marc Gaspard Itard, who took it upon himself to study the boy.
Victor became a celebrity of sorts and a great case study of nature vs. nurture. While he never learned to speak fluently, he started to wear clothes, acquired appropriate toilet habits and could write a few letters. Itard was not the only scientist who studied the boy but five years of work led the physician to groundbreaking research into educating the developmentally disabled.
Autism expert Uta Frith believes Victor was possibly autistic but we cannot know for sure.
2. The man who mistook his wife for a hat
An ornate hat seen during Kentucky Derby 2018 in Louisville, Kentucky.
Credit: Dia Dipasupil/Getty Images for Chruchill Downs
The British neurologist and author Oliver Sacks came across more than a few strange cases in his studies. One his most famous books "The Man Who Mistook His Wife For A Hat" describes the case of one Dr. P., who suffered from visual agnosia – a condition results from damage to the brain's occipital or parietal lobes.
When he looked at the world around him, Dr. P. didn't see it quite correctly, unable to recognize objects or people. For example, when he looked at his wife – he saw a hat. He also saw faces where there weren't any faces at all.
"In the street he might pat the heads of water hydrants and parking meters, taking these to be the heads of children; he would amiably address carved knobs on the furniture and be astounded when they did not reply," Sacks wrote.
3. The woman who saw dragons everywhere
A woman walks past a mural of a dragon inside the Game of Thrones pop-up bar in Washington, DC on July 12, 2017.
Credit: MANDEL NGAN/AFP/Getty Images
A research paper was published in The Lancet in 2014 with the juicy title "Prosopometamorphopsia and facial hallucinations." It presented the unusual case of a 52-year-old Dutch woman who came to the psychiatric clinic of the authors. As if she was living in a real-life "Game of Thrones," all her life she saw people's faces change to faces of dragons. She also hallucinated such faces many times a day.
The researchers, who included Oliver Sacks, reported the woman describing that the dragon faces were "black, grew long, pointy ears and a protruding snout, and displayed a reptiloid skin and huge eyes in bright yellow, green, blue, or red."
The dragons didn't only appear to her in the faces but almost everywhere - in walls, electrical sockets, computer screens or just coming out of the dark at night.
The scientists didn't fully figure out what was causing these hallucinations, even after extensive testing that included neurological examinations, EEGs and MRI brain scans.
4. The man who wanted to be eaten
An actor portrays serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer at Killers: A Nightmare Haunted House, at Clemente Soto Vélez Cultural Center on October 5, 2012.
Credit: TIMOTHY A. CLARY/AFP/GettyImages
Yes, this is a not a case for the faint-hearted. Toronto psychiatric hospital doctors came across a man named Stephen, who wanted to be eaten. But the reverse-cannibalism fetish wasn't enough – Stephen strongly preferred the eating to be done by a "large, dominant woman" who would then defecate him out.
The 45-year-old man was described as a clean, normal guy, who didn't look psychotic. The researchers ascribed his bizarre wishes to the desire to be unborn, as if returning to the womb. Central to this was the idea of being swallowed whole and then expelled. "He often fantasized about being feces or semen and being expelled by a person," the report pointed out.
Notably, this problem wasn't the reason Stephen came to the doctors – it turned out he was worried he was gay. The doctors did not think so.
And since we're on the topic, the takeaway word here is vorarephilia - an erotic desire to eat others or the "love of devouring" in Latin.
5. The woman who couldn't stop the music for four years
Pop musicians generally try to create hook-filled tunes that you can't get out of your head. But nobody wants it to go this far – a lady named Susan Root from Essex, England got a particular song stuck in her head for four years. The song was a 1952 tune performed by Patti Page called "How Much is that Doggie in the Window."
Therapists couldn't do much to cure Susan's musical hallucinations also called "musical tinnitus", as wrote Medical Daily. It got so bad that her husband of 40 years started to shout just to get her attention when she sat entranced by the song playing in her head.
The rare condition was the worst at night, when it's quiet. Susan had to put on the TV just so she could tune out the incessant tune and go to sleep.
Later in life, Susan started to mostly hallucinate hearing Judy Garland's "Somewhere over the Rainbow".
And if you'd like to see if "How Much is that Doggie in the Window" would get stuck in your head, give it a try here:
Inventions with revolutionary potential made by a mysterious aerospace engineer for the U.S. Navy come to light.
- U.S. Navy holds patents for enigmatic inventions by aerospace engineer Dr. Salvatore Pais.
- Pais came up with technology that can "engineer" reality, devising an ultrafast craft, a fusion reactor, and more.
- While mostly theoretical at this point, the inventions could transform energy, space, and military sectors.
The U.S. Navy controls patents for some futuristic and outlandish technologies, some of which, dubbed "the UFO patents," came to light recently. Of particular note are inventions by the somewhat mysterious Dr. Salvatore Cezar Pais, whose tech claims to be able to "engineer reality." His slate of highly-ambitious, borderline sci-fi designs meant for use by the U.S. government range from gravitational wave generators and compact fusion reactors to next-gen hybrid aerospace-underwater crafts with revolutionary propulsion systems, and beyond.
Of course, the existence of patents does not mean these technologies have actually been created, but there is evidence that some demonstrations of operability have been successfully carried out. As investigated and reported by The War Zone, a possible reason why some of the patents may have been taken on by the Navy is that the Chinese military may also be developing similar advanced gadgets.
Among Dr. Pais's patents are designs, approved in 2018, for an aerospace-underwater craft of incredible speed and maneuverability. This cone-shaped vehicle can potentially fly just as well anywhere it may be, whether air, water or space, without leaving any heat signatures. It can achieve this by creating a quantum vacuum around itself with a very dense polarized energy field. This vacuum would allow it to repel any molecule the craft comes in contact with, no matter the medium. Manipulating "quantum field fluctuations in the local vacuum energy state," would help reduce the craft's inertia. The polarized vacuum would dramatically decrease any elemental resistance and lead to "extreme speeds," claims the paper.
Not only that, if the vacuum-creating technology can be engineered, we'd also be able to "engineer the fabric of our reality at the most fundamental level," states the patent. This would lead to major advancements in aerospace propulsion and generating power. Not to mention other reality-changing outcomes that come to mind.
Among Pais's other patents are inventions that stem from similar thinking, outlining pieces of technology necessary to make his creations come to fruition. His paper presented in 2019, titled "Room Temperature Superconducting System for Use on a Hybrid Aerospace Undersea Craft," proposes a system that can achieve superconductivity at room temperatures. This would become "a highly disruptive technology, capable of a total paradigm change in Science and Technology," conveys Pais.
High frequency gravitational wave generator.
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
Another invention devised by Pais is an electromagnetic field generator that could generate "an impenetrable defensive shield to sea and land as well as space-based military and civilian assets." This shield could protect from threats like anti-ship ballistic missiles, cruise missiles that evade radar, coronal mass ejections, military satellites, and even asteroids.
Dr. Pais's ideas center around the phenomenon he dubbed "The Pais Effect". He referred to it in his writings as the "controlled motion of electrically charged matter (from solid to plasma) via accelerated spin and/or accelerated vibration under rapid (yet smooth) acceleration-deceleration-acceleration transients." In less jargon-heavy terms, Pais claims to have figured out how to spin electromagnetic fields in order to contain a fusion reaction – an accomplishment that would lead to a tremendous change in power consumption and an abundance of energy.
According to his bio in a recently published paper on a new Plasma Compression Fusion Device, which could transform energy production, Dr. Pais is a mechanical and aerospace engineer working at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD), which is headquartered in Patuxent River, Maryland. Holding a Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, Pais was a NASA Research Fellow and worked with Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. His current Department of Defense work involves his "advanced knowledge of theory, analysis, and modern experimental and computational methods in aerodynamics, along with an understanding of air-vehicle and missile design, especially in the domain of hypersonic power plant and vehicle design." He also has expert knowledge of electrooptics, emerging quantum technologies (laser power generation in particular), high-energy electromagnetic field generation, and the "breakthrough field of room temperature superconductivity, as related to advanced field propulsion."
Suffice it to say, with such a list of research credentials that would make Nikola Tesla proud, Dr. Pais seems well-positioned to carry out groundbreaking work.
A craft using an inertial mass reduction device.
Credit: Salvatore Pais
The patents won't necessarily lead to these technologies ever seeing the light of day. The research has its share of detractors and nonbelievers among other scientists, who think the amount of energy required for the fields described by Pais and his ideas on electromagnetic propulsions are well beyond the scope of current tech and are nearly impossible. Yet investigators at The War Zone found comments from Navy officials that indicate the inventions are being looked at seriously enough, and some tests are taking place.
If you'd like to read through Pais's patents yourself, check them out here.
Laser Augmented Turbojet Propulsion System
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
China has reached a new record for nuclear fusion at 120 million degrees Celsius.
This article was originally published on our sister site, Freethink.
China wants to build a mini-star on Earth and house it in a reactor. Many teams across the globe have this same bold goal --- which would create unlimited clean energy via nuclear fusion.
But according to Chinese state media, New Atlas reports, the team at the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has set a new world record: temperatures of 120 million degrees Celsius for 101 seconds.
Yeah, that's hot. So what? Nuclear fusion reactions require an insane amount of heat and pressure --- a temperature environment similar to the sun, which is approximately 150 million degrees C.
If scientists can essentially build a sun on Earth, they can create endless energy by mimicking how the sun does it.
If scientists can essentially build a sun on Earth, they can create endless energy by mimicking how the sun does it. In nuclear fusion, the extreme heat and pressure create a plasma. Then, within that plasma, two or more hydrogen nuclei crash together, merge into a heavier atom, and release a ton of energy in the process.
Nuclear fusion milestones: The team at EAST built a giant metal torus (similar in shape to a giant donut) with a series of magnetic coils. The coils hold hot plasma where the reactions occur. They've reached many milestones along the way.
According to New Atlas, in 2016, the scientists at EAST could heat hydrogen plasma to roughly 50 million degrees C for 102 seconds. Two years later, they reached 100 million degrees for 10 seconds.
The temperatures are impressive, but the short reaction times, and lack of pressure are another obstacle. Fusion is simple for the sun, because stars are massive and gravity provides even pressure all over the surface. The pressure squeezes hydrogen gas in the sun's core so immensely that several nuclei combine to form one atom, releasing energy.
But on Earth, we have to supply all of the pressure to keep the reaction going, and it has to be perfectly even. It's hard to do this for any length of time, and it uses a ton of energy. So the reactions usually fizzle out in minutes or seconds.
Still, the latest record of 120 million degrees and 101 seconds is one more step toward sustaining longer and hotter reactions.
Why does this matter? No one denies that humankind needs a clean, unlimited source of energy.
We all recognize that oil and gas are limited resources. But even wind and solar power --- renewable energies --- are fundamentally limited. They are dependent upon a breezy day or a cloudless sky, which we can't always count on.
Nuclear fusion is clean, safe, and environmentally sustainable --- its fuel is a nearly limitless resource since it is simply hydrogen (which can be easily made from water).
With each new milestone, we are creeping closer and closer to a breakthrough for unlimited, clean energy.
The symbol for love is the heart, but the brain may be more accurate.
- How love makes us feel can only be defined on an individual basis, but what it does to the body, specifically the brain, is now less abstract thanks to science.
- One of the problems with early-stage attraction, according to anthropologist Helen Fisher, is that it activates parts of the brain that are linked to drive, craving, obsession, and motivation, while other regions that deal with decision-making shut down.
- Dr. Fisher, professor Ted Fischer, and psychiatrist Gail Saltz explain the different types of love, explore the neuroscience of love and attraction, and share tips for sustaining relationships that are healthy and mutually beneficial.