from the world's big
10 Golden Age science fiction novels
Transport yourself to other worlds and states of mind.
- The early 20th century saw explosive growth for the science fiction genre.
- A wide range of these books would go on to become classics.
- These great works explore the strange, zany and absurd profundities of our existence.
The first Golden Age of Science Fiction was officially considered to be from 1938 to 1946. As a whole and how most readers view it — the era extended into the early- to mid-1960s. From Jules Verne to earlier proto-science fiction works, the genre has gained more prominence and significance as the years go by. Preceded over by the "big three," Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke and Robert Heinlein, this unique Golden Age era produced some of the greatest works of literary art in the past century.
The Martian Chronicles
The Martian Chronicles is a collection of short stories which unfold in an episodic narrative as its characters attempt to colonize Mars. It is both a thrilling story and social philosophical critique on the subject of destructive colonization. Literary critics credit Ray Bradbury's sequence of stories as the catalyst for the genres eventual widespread acceptance and success.
Asimov's loosely tied together set of short stories documents a world filled with robots and exceptional technological progress. The robots act as a great foil and transference of some regular old philosophical and societal human problems. Each story exemplifies a different aspect of life drastically changed by the introduction of a robotic artificial intelligence.
The famous Three Laws of Robotics first showed up Asimov's 1942 story Runaround. Throughout the sophisticated plotlines of Asimov's stories, he contends with the logical outcomes and paradoxes inherent in his own laws he made up.
There has been so much said about 1984. As far as classics go, it's relatively new to the pantheon of literary greats. Dystopian oeuvre, George Orwell's novel is a timeless critique on the menace of faceless bureaucracies and weak minds that fall prey to historical negationism. Deception, lust and existential dread seep from each page. With words like Orwellian becoming a stand in for governmental deception and thoughtcrime and Big Brother entering the cultural vernacular, this book has left its mark for the best.
Not usually thought of as a science fiction novel, William Burroughs avant-garde Dadaist cut up technique inspired a countless number of artists in a number of disciplines. Following the travels of William Lee, a drug addict as he flees from the police to Mexico — this novel swerves into the unknown and downright fantastical. Fictional insect drugs, aliens, telepathy and hallucinations at every turn in this non-linear narrative leave you gasping for air. All sorts of depravity and sadistic acts are up for display in this novel. A banned book in some states, it went on to also test the standards of obscenity in literature.
A Canticle for Leibowitz
A Canticle for Leibowitz has a unique setup. Alluded to be a post-World War III, apocalyptic and radiation-laden American setting, civilization is on the peripheries of existence and has reverted to a near primitive state. The only humans concerned with upholding the past is a small scattering of monastic clergy. The book follows along the happenings of one such monastery over the course of hundreds of years. It's a thoughtful and bone-chilling meditation on the perils of nuclear destruction.
Stranger in a Strange Land
Writing at the forefront and dawn of the far-out '60s, it seems like Robert Heinlein had the prophetic foresight to usher in an entire generations new hedonistic exploration. The book follows Valentine Michael Smith, a human once stranded on Mars raised by god-like Martians and his return to earth. He is gifted with telekinetic powers. The story follows his journey into the strange labyrinth of human Earth culture.
Here he meets Jubal Harshaw — philosopher polymath and Renaissance Man extraordinaire — as in many of Heinlein's novels, these sorts of characters are indicative of the way he viewed himself. Smith goes on to lead a commune of free love and general hippie-like existence. It's of note to say that this was the first science fiction novel of its kind to be placed on The New York Times Book Review's bestsellers list.
A Clockwork Orange
Written in a number of different dialects both real and fictional, A Clockwork Orange follows a young hoodlum living in a near futuristic London. Readers are taken on a journey as Alex causes mayhem with his droogs in an ol' bit of the ultraviolence. While he's not out causing chaos, he revels in the sheer gorgeousity of Beethoven's Fifth. After being sent to prison, he signs himself up to take the Ludovico Technique, an aversion therapy proposed to end his malcontent and malevolent ways. Most readers will recall the equally compelling movie of the same name made by Stanley Kubrick in 1971.
Kurt Vonnegut once remarked that Arthur C. Clarke's Childhood's End was one of the masterpieces of the science fiction genre. This is no hyperbolic statement. Childhood's End largely defined the major underpinnings of a great deal of science fiction works. Clarke has given us a rare masterpiece in this book. Transcendence, philosophy and a good benevolent alien invasion makes this book not only an accomplishment for its time, but for the science fiction literary canon in general.
Time out of Joint
Philip K. Dick's Time Out of Joint stands out as a seminal and shifting work for PKD. After an odd string of events occurs, the book's Ragle Gumm begins to question the validity of his reality. As a family member begins to see the same strange perturbations of reality, Gumm decides it's time to skip town. After a number of strange occurrences that trap him in town, he decides its time to investigate a little bit further. This book was a huge influence on movies such as The Truman Show and The Matrix.
The Sirens of Titan
Kurt Vonnegut's The Sirens of Titan is one of his more lesser known works. It follows Malachi Constant as he ventures through the peculiarities of all time and space. Rather that positioning his character as a triumphant driver of the story, Vonnegut comically labels Malachi as "... a victim of a series of accidents, as are we all." The plot twists and turns in absurd ways but turns out to be a profound and visionary meditation on a great deal of issues.
Educators and administrators must build new supports for faculty and student success in a world where the classroom might become virtual in the blink of an eye.
- If you or someone you know is attending school remotely, you are more than likely learning through emergency remote instruction, which is not the same as online learning, write Rich DeMillo and Steve Harmon.
- Education institutions must properly define and understand the difference between a course that is designed from inception to be taught in an online format and a course that has been rapidly converted to be offered to remote students.
- In a future involving more online instruction than any of us ever imagined, it will be crucial to meticulously design factors like learner navigation, interactive recordings, feedback loops, exams and office hours in order to maximize learning potential within the virtual environment.
A leading British space scientist thinks there is life under the ice sheets of Europa.
- A British scientist named Professor Monica Grady recently came out in support of extraterrestrial life on Europa.
- Europa, the sixth largest moon in the solar system, may have favorable conditions for life under its miles of ice.
- The moon is one of Jupiter's 79.
Neil deGrasse Tyson wants to go ice fishing on Europa<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="GLGsRX7e" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="f4790eb8f0515e036b24c4195299df28"> <div id="botr_GLGsRX7e_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/GLGsRX7e-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Water Vapor Above Europa’s Surface Deteced for First Time<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9c4abc8473e1b89170cc8941beeb1f2d"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/WQ-E1lnSOzc?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
A study finds people are more influenced by what the other party says than their own. What gives?
- A new study has found evidence suggesting that conservative climate skepticism is driven by reactions to liberal support for science.
- This was determined both by comparing polling data to records of cues given by leaders, and through a survey.
- The findings could lead to new methods of influencing public opinion.
Mind the cues<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="CabkeAzx" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="169377c88f392a86f6c42180b74820a5"> <div id="botr_CabkeAzx_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/CabkeAzx-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/CabkeAzx-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/CabkeAzx-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div> <p>The gulf in accepting the science behind climate change also exists among party elites. It is well known to any American who is attentive to the news, as party leaders are often more than willing to discuss their take to journalists.</p><p>Using polling data going back to the 1980s, the researchers were able to create a chart showing the aggregate amount of climate skepticism among the general population. A similar diagram showing the Republicans' skepticism dating back to 2001 was sourced from a previous, similar study. It was shown to be highly correlated with the one produced for this study.</p><p>These charts were compared with media content from prominent newspapers that included implicit or explicit stances on climate change by significant political figures. These thousands of articles were classified by using key terms and which major political figures were quoted or referenced. The researchers compared the number of cues over time to measured skepticism and looked for "<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granger_causality" target="_blank">Granger causality</a>," the tendency for one variable to predict the future value of another variable.</p><p>The model shows evidence of both in and out-group cue effects, though the repulsion to out-group cues was much more evident. A significant increase in Democratic cues in favor of climate science was followed by a rise in skepticism among Republican voters. Importantly, the cues lead, rather than follow opinion, and do so with consistency. Changes in view did not predict changes in the number or direction of cues. </p><p>The researchers also surveyed nearly 3000 adults to demonstrate the concept. This involved showing them a statement on the scientific consensus around climate change and a cue from either a Republican or a Democrat. This test confirmed the previous observation and provided further support for the notion that signals from leaders cause an increase in skepticism among some respondents.</p><p>Before my left-leaning and Democratic readers get too smug, this research references previous studies demonstrating a similar effect in the lead up to the Iraq War. However, in that case, the Democratic Party elites' mixed messages were countered by a Republican Party united behind the idea of invasion. The effect on the Democratic party rank and file was similar to that observed in this case. </p><p>Several other studies have examined effects similar to this for other issues. This study's importance is its focus on out-group cues and the effort placed into demonstrating a causal relationship between the statements of certain party elites and public opinion. Most previous studies focused purely on in-group cues or failed to differentiate between the two. </p>
Can thinking about the past really help us create a better present and future?
- There are two types of counterfactual thinking: upward and downward.
- Both upward and downward counterfactual thinking can be positive impacts on your current outlook - however, upward counterfactual thinking has been linked with depression.
- While counterfactual thinking is a very normal and natural process, experts suggest the best course is to focus on the present and future and allow counterfactual thinking to act as a motivator when possible.
“Upward” versus “downward” counterfactual thinking<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzQ1NDYxOS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NDM2MDY2OX0.njWs1qrV1vDBxU1V75tUduUW4TjJvEHglDWsK8ZF2l4/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C556%2C0%2C209&height=700" id="a15fa" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="98314d4d2b256ed08f42d369fe4ae080" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="concept of man thinking about the past one line drawing counterfactual thinking" />
What are upward and downward counterfactual thinking?
Image by one line man on Shutterstock<p><strong>What is upward counterfactual thinking?</strong></p><p>Upward counterfactual thinking happens when we look at a scenario and ask ourselves "what if" in terms of how our life could have turned out better. </p><p>Examples of upward counterfactual thinking are: </p><ul><li><em>"I wish I had taken that other job instead of this one 10 years ago - my life would be so much better if I had." </em></li><li><em>"I wish I would have gotten the part in that high school play, maybe I could have gotten into a theatre school and became an actor…"</em> </li></ul><p>Both of these examples have the ideology that if you had made different choices, your life right now would be improved. </p><p><strong>What is downward counterfactual thinking?</strong></p><p>Downward counterfactual thinking is, naturally, the opposite of upward counterfactual thinking in that we think about how things could have been worse if other decisions had been made. </p><p>Examples of downward counterfactual thinking are: </p><ul><li><em>"I'm so thankful I studied secondary education in university instead of psychology like I had originally planned - I love teaching high school kids and I never would have gotten to do that…" </em></li><li><em>"I'm so happy I left David when I got the chance, I can't imagine still being in an unhappy marriage with someone who doesn't support me…"</em> </li></ul><p>In these examples, we see the idea that if you had made different choices your life would not be as good as it is right now. </p>
How counterfactual thinking can impact your life<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzQ1NDYxNy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNjI2MDQxOX0.DIVQ-Yk0d6yE3tc743MH1Fz2pOg1TGHLmhp8dPp9UdY/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C0%2C0%2C0&height=700" id="522d7" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="da7df6ad916b043e3610223900d0f8df" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="man thinking what if written on chalkboard" />
How do upward and downward counterfactual thinking impact your life?
Photo by Brasil Creativo on Shutterstock<p>While many people don't see the point in "what if" scenarios, various studies have found that downward counterfactual thinking can be more associated with psychological health compared with upward counterfactual thinking. Not only that, but research has also shown upward counterfactual thinking can be linked with current and future depression.</p> <p><strong>Downward counterfactual thinking tends to be more associated with psychological health </strong></p><p>According to a <a href="http://journal.sjdm.org/jdm06136.pdf" target="_blank">2000 study</a>, downward counterfactual thinking can be linked with better psychological health compared to upward counterfactual thinking. More importantly, in cases where downward counterfactual thinking did lead to negative feelings, those feelings acted as something of a motivator for people to take productive actions to better their current situation. </p> <p><strong>Upward counterfactual thinking tends to be more associated with depression </strong></p><p><a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272735816301714#:~:text=An%20upward%20counterfactual%20(as%20opposed,Markman%20and%20McMullen%2C%202003)." target="_blank">According to a 2017 study</a> that pooled a sample of over 13,000 respondents, thoughts about "better outcomes" and regret (upward counterfactual thinking) were associated with current and future depression. </p> <p><strong>Downward counterfactual thinking can actually improve your relationships and is more often engaged in by women than men.</strong></p><p>In a <a href="https://dspace.sunyconnect.suny.edu/bitstream/handle/1951/67589/Studer_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y" target="_blank">2016 research paper submitted</a> to the Department of Psychology at the State University of New York at New Paltz, downward counterfactual thinking in regards to romantic relationships was associated with relatively positive relationship outcomes. Interestingly, women were more likely than men to engage in downward counterfactual thinking about their romantic life. </p> <p><strong>Upward counterfactual thinking can have some benefits in certain scenarios. </strong></p><p>When we look back after a failed test and think "I wish I would have studied more" - this motivates us to study harder the next time a test comes up. In this way, upward counterfactual thinking (or the negative version of "what if") can actually benefit us. </p> <p><strong>This can be difficult, though, because much of the time upward counterfactual thinking is more associated with a pessimistic outlook that can be unmotivating. </strong></p> <p>Thinking in the past tense can be motivational (and even healthy) at times, but the best thing to do is look forward. </p><p>While counterfactual thinking as a whole can be used to motivate us to make better choices or appreciate where we are in life, <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/darwins-subterranean-world/201809/the-psychology-what-if" target="_blank">this Psychology Today</a> article suggests that we should come up with ways to move on and focus on the present and the future instead of the past. Using counterfactual thinking as a motivational tool can be very helpful if we don't get stuck in the "what if" mindset that tends to pull us out of the present and back into the past, where things will always remain the same. </p>