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Why the Feeling of Boredom Is so Important in Life
In a world that's always connected, we give away an essential part of our selves with constant distractions.
When their cat goes missing, Kumiko Okada instructs her husband, Toru, to find him. Toru had recently quit his job in a law office—“professional gopher,” he calls it—with no ambitions of actually becoming a lawyer. His days free, Toru embarks on what becomes an epic 606-page adventure in feline detection techniques.
The beauty of Haruki Murakami’s The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle is how little involvement in his circumstances Toru has. He simply sets off on a walk and notices his surroundings. This is a recurrent theme in Murakami’s novels: the hero stumbles through life, uncertain of where to go or who they are, suddenly encountering transformative narratives. Their life story is re-written in mundane yet sublime script.
Today Toru would most likely walk around Tokyo staring at his phone. Maybe his cat has a chip, which would help locate him, yet make for a rather boring novel. Or maybe Toru would stop to Instagram street flora and ramen lunches, re-posting selfies that teenage May Kasahara takes. Murakami’s genius is in transforming the everyday into the monumental; the author counts on our imagination to fill in the details.
One term used to describe Toru is ‘apathetic.’ Let’s not disavow his discipline so easily. He values boredom, an increasingly disappearing skill. That we can connect wirelessly at any moment does not mean that we should. For many people such an option seems to not exist at all, as if the mere idea of taking a day off from their devices is a Luddite throwback, a taint on our evolutionary prowess.
In the past I used the term Luddite to describe friends that refused to purchase a cell phone. That was simply ignorant. The Luddites were not anti-technology. We see strains of their plight in the coal industry today. English textile workers whose jobs were threated by mechanization, Luddites were fighting for survival. We can argue whether or not their industry needed saving—coal is not the way forward today—but to dismiss them as hopeless romantics misses their knack for labor organizing and survival instincts.
In his new collection of blog posts and essays, Utopia is Creepy, Nicholas Carr writes that we assume Luddites are in it for nostalgia and sentimentality, therefore negating progress. Few question the validity of technology, however. No one is arguing that we need to shut down Wi-Fi. What we need to address is how (and how much) we’re using it, and for what means. Carr writes,
It has always been a sin against progress to look backward. Now it is also a sin against progress to look inward.
Which is a point that Michael Harris arrives at in The End of Absence as well. Like Carr, he finds the inability to finish a book (in his case, War and Peace) stealing something essential from his quality of life. As a journalist, constant alerts and dings are suffocating. While Harris recognizes the value of contact, he finds that “efficient communication is not the ultimate goal of human experience.”
The numbers he cites are staggering. In 2012-13, he writes,
Harris relates this to operant conditioning, a phrase coined by psychologist B. F. Skinner in 1937 that “describes any voluntary behavior that is shaped by its consequences.” If there’s a reward, we’ll chase it regardless of what is lost or compromised. Interestingly, reliability does not imply addiction:
Animals, including humans, become obsessed with reward systems that only occasionally and randomly give up the goods.
Not every email is going to be a winner, but you’ll muscle through a thousand spam missives to unearth a gem you’ve been waiting for. You won’t do that all at once, however. Most likely you’ll “reap empty rewards from completing a thousand little sugarcoated tasks,” as Daniel Levitin writes in The Organized Mind, such as swiping to delete over and over. And over.
Levitin warns that this behavior “creates a dopamine-addiction feedback loop.” Your brain is briefly rewarded when seeking external validation. The problem is that the brain region necessary for staying focused is hijacked do to our inherent ‘novelty bias,’ which occupies the same neural real estate. We’re always on edge, always waiting for the next thing, regardless of how irrelevant or mundane—and not the exciting mundane filled with possibilities that Toru was engaged in. We’ve lost, Harris writes, the ability to be absent.
With that loss comes not only an inability to focus, but an equally essential brain state: the beauty of drifting. The human imagination, one of our great gifts as a species, relies on the default mode network—daydreaming. Technology lets us wander, but in someone else’s world, through an often confused and seemingly random collection of hyperlinks, advertisements disguised as content, content disguised as journalism.
The cultivation of imagination relies on boredom. We need moments of space, of absence, to free up the overwhelming deluge of information assaulting our nervous system every moment of every day. When any opportunity becomes a chance to like and connect and delete—sipping coffee, at a red light, in line—we lose the value of boredom. Over time that loss will prove to be one of the most valuable skills we have forgotten.
Derek Beres is working on his new book, Whole Motion: Training Your Brain and Body For Optimal Health (Carrel/Skyhorse, Spring 2017). He is based in Los Angeles. Stay in touch on Facebook and Twitter.
Join The Daily Show comedian Jordan Klepper and elite improviser Bob Kulhan live at 1 pm ET on Tuesday, July 14!
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
Gender and sexual minority populations are experiencing rising anxiety and depression rates during the pandemic.
- Anxiety and depression rates are spiking in the LGBTQ+ community, and especially in individuals who hadn't struggled with those issues in the past.
- Overall, depression increased by an average PHQ-9 score of 1.21 and anxiety increased by an average GAD-7 score of 3.11.
- The researchers recommended that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.
Study findings<p>For the study, <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05970-4" target="_blank">published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine</a><em>, </em>Flentje and her team evaluated survey responses from nearly 2,300 individuals who identified as being in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) community. Most of the participants were white, while nearly 19 percent identified as a racial or ethnic minority. Multiple genders were represented with cisgender women (27.2 percent) and men (24.6 percent) making up a majority of the participants. Sixty-three percent had been assigned female at birth. For the most part, participants identified their sexual orientations as queer (40.3 percent), gay (36.5 percent), and bisexual (30.3 percent).</p><p>The JGIM study participants were recruited from the 18,000-participant <a href="https://pridestudy.org/" target="_blank">PRIDE Study</a> (Population Research in Identity and Disparities for Equality), which is the first large-scale, long-term national study focusing on American adults who identify as LGBTQ+. It conducts annual questionnaires to understand factors related to health and disease in this population. </p><p>Participants filled out an annual questionnaire (starting in June 2019) and a COVID-19 impact survey this past spring. Flentje noted that on an individual level, some people may not have experienced a big change in anxiety or depression levels, but for others there was. Overall, depression increased by a <a href="https://patient.info/doctor/patient-health-questionnaire-phq-9" target="_blank">PHQ-9 score</a> of 1.21, putting it at 8.31 on average. Anxiety went up by a <a href="https://www.mdcalc.com/gad-7-general-anxiety-disorder-7" target="_blank">GAD-7</a> score of 3.11 to an average of 8.89. Interestingly, the average PHQ-9 scores for those who screened positive for depression at the first 2019 survey decreased by 1.08. Those who screened negative for depression saw their PHQ-9 scores increase by 2.17 on average. As for anxiety, researchers detected no GAD-7 change among the study participants who screened positive for anxiety in the first survey, but did see an overall increase of 3.93 among those who had initially been evaluated as negative for the disorder. </p>
Risks among gender and sexual minorities<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fc3fd1ae68b77bbbf58a6995638d6d65"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EnUqDjCqg0A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The LGBTQ+ community is a vulnerable population to mental health concerns because of their fear of stigmatization and previous discriminatory experiences.</p> <p>Previous research by the Human Rights Campaign has found "that LGBTQ Americans are more likely than the <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/general+population/" target="_blank">general population</a> to live in poverty and lack access to adequate medical care, paid <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/medical+leave/" target="_blank">medical leave</a>, and basic necessities during the pandemic," said researcher Tari Hanneman, director of the health and aging program at the campaign.</p> <p>"Therefore, it is not surprising to see this increase in anxiety and depression among this population," Hanneman said in the release. "This study highlights the need for <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/health+care+professionals/" target="_blank">health care professionals</a> to support, affirm and provide <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/critical+care/" target="_blank">critical care</a> for the LGBTQ community to manage and maintain their mental health, as well as their physical health, during this pandemic."</p>
What should health care providers do?<p>The authors of the study recommend that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders in members of that community—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.</p><p>As cases of COVID-19 continue to mount, the sustained social distancing, potential isolation, economic precariousness, and personal illness, grief, and loss are bound to have increased and varied impacts on mental health. Effective treatments may include individual therapy and medications as well as more large-scale coronavirus support programs like peer-led groups and mindfulness practices. </p><p>"It will be important to find out what happens over time and to identify who is most at risk, so we can be sure to roll out public health interventions to support the mental health of our communities in the best and most effective ways," said Flentje.</p>
What we know about black holes is both fascinating and scary.
- When it comes to black holes, science simultaneously knows so much and so little, which is why they are so fascinating. Focusing on what we do know, this group of astronomers, educators, and physicists share some of the most incredible facts about the powerful and mysterious objects.
- A black hole is so massive that light (and anything else it swallows) can't escape, says Bill Nye. You can't see a black hole, theoretical physicists Michio Kaku and Christophe Galfard explain, because it is too dark. What you can see, however, is the distortion of light around it caused by its extreme gravity.
- Explaining one unsettling concept from astrophysics called spaghettification, astronomer Michelle Thaller says that "If you got close to a black hole there would be tides over your body that small that would rip you apart into basically a strand of spaghetti that would fall down the black hole."