from the world's big
Internet Search Is so 2015
Microsoft Senior Director of Search Stefan Weitz discusses the future of search technology.
Stefan Weitz is a Senior Director of Search at Microsoft and charged with working with people and organizations across the industry to promote and improve Search technologies. While focused on Microsoft's product line, he works across the industry to understand searcher behavior, academic developments, and innovations from all over and, in his role as an evangelist for Search, gathers and distills feedback to drive product improvements.
Weitz is author of the book Search: How the Data Explosion Makes Us Smarter.
Stefan Weitz: I would say that a 21st century search system doesn’t look like a search system at all. I think the most interesting part about where search is headed is that it will become more ambient, more transparent. I think in even, I don’t know, five years, 10 years, sometime in the future this notion of saying I’m going to go search for that; I’m going to go search that; I’m going to go Google that; I’m going to Bing that will sound as outmoded as someone saying I’m going to go get online. In the old days before broadband internet was broadly distributed and before we had wireless access everywhere, you would have to consciously say to yourself I’m going to go dial up to AOL, Compuserve, one of these old services and get online. You had to stop your train of thought, interrupt your task, and do that. And search is kind of the same way today. When you think about it if you’re in the middle of something else and you want to figure out the ratings for a particular restaurant that your Uber is going to take you to, you have to switch apps and go to a search app and punch it in and that’s very disruptive. What we’re seeing now search heading — it’s becoming more interwoven throughout all the different experiences. So as you are engaging in experiences anywhere, search has simply become relevant and become part of that experience that you’re engaging with. So that’s the first thing I think is you’re going to see search as this construct begin to blend into the fabric of what you’re doing.
Search will also, however, stop just simply being an index. We’re already seeing in many cases today search creating knowledge, synthesizing knowledge. And that’s a pretty exciting thing. Traditionally search has been all about finding something somebody has written or published or whatnot, indexing that, retrieving it when someone asks a question pertaining to it. Because of the work that all these companies have done over the last 15 years, the ability for search to physically understand the world in which it lives has been boosted dramatically, meaning that search now has the ability to process the world. Not just index, but make sense of all these things, make sense of who I am, make sense of who I know, make sense of what I like and create content about me, about the world in ways that just didn’t exist. And so it’s really exciting for nerds like me because suddenly we’re not just retrieving things that already exist out there; we’re finding patterns; we’re finding insights; we’re finding things that no one even knew using all of this computational power that we have. So the fact that, you know, heading down — if I have to go up to midtown today avoiding a certain street because there’s congestion. That’s a very simple example of what search has. Search has looked at all the data coming in from all the different cars and the streetlights and the cameras and whatnot and said there’s something happening here on the 38th, right, so you should route around that thing.
That isn’t indexed anywhere. That is a synthetic creation of search. So I think that’s the second really exciting thing, the first one being again the transparency of it. The second thing being this predictive power and this creation ability of it. The last thing really I’m most excited about is the ability that we’ll have to interact with it in new and different ways. And so in the same way that’s becoming more transparent, search will be able to again be ambient around us and it will be something where you’re not even necessarily thinking about, "I need to go search something." You just — as you’re engaging with something, as you’re pointing at something, as you’re looking at something depending on what you’re wearing, as you’re having a conversation with somebody, depending on what you allow search to do, it can be part of your everyday corpus. It’s part of your life and so it’ll be something which is listening and looking and thinking for you and with you to augment your daily life in ways that today is very much a conscious act that you have to go do. So that’s the kind of the third area. It’ll be an augmentation to your life in ways that you haven’t really explored today.
In this Big Think interview, Microsoft Senior Director of Search Stefan Weitz discusses the exciting future of search technology. It's going to become more ambient, more transparent, says Weitz. It may not even resemble a modern-day search system at all. The indices will be replaced with knowledge synthesizers. Search will no longer be a collector of knowledge, but rather a mode of creating new knowledge.
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Gender and sexual minority populations are experiencing rising anxiety and depression rates during the pandemic.
- Anxiety and depression rates are spiking in the LGBTQ+ community, and especially in individuals who hadn't struggled with those issues in the past.
- Overall, depression increased by an average PHQ-9 score of 1.21 and anxiety increased by an average GAD-7 score of 3.11.
- The researchers recommended that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.
Study findings<p>For the study, <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05970-4" target="_blank">published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine</a><em>, </em>Flentje and her team evaluated survey responses from nearly 2,300 individuals who identified as being in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) community. Most of the participants were white, while nearly 19 percent identified as a racial or ethnic minority. Multiple genders were represented with cisgender women (27.2 percent) and men (24.6 percent) making up a majority of the participants. Sixty-three percent had been assigned female at birth. For the most part, participants identified their sexual orientations as queer (40.3 percent), gay (36.5 percent), and bisexual (30.3 percent).</p><p>The JGIM study participants were recruited from the 18,000-participant <a href="https://pridestudy.org/" target="_blank">PRIDE Study</a> (Population Research in Identity and Disparities for Equality), which is the first large-scale, long-term national study focusing on American adults who identify as LGBTQ+. It conducts annual questionnaires to understand factors related to health and disease in this population. </p><p>Participants filled out an annual questionnaire (starting in June 2019) and a COVID-19 impact survey this past spring. Flentje noted that on an individual level, some people may not have experienced a big change in anxiety or depression levels, but for others there was. Overall, depression increased by a <a href="https://patient.info/doctor/patient-health-questionnaire-phq-9" target="_blank">PHQ-9 score</a> of 1.21, putting it at 8.31 on average. Anxiety went up by a <a href="https://www.mdcalc.com/gad-7-general-anxiety-disorder-7" target="_blank">GAD-7</a> score of 3.11 to an average of 8.89. Interestingly, the average PHQ-9 scores for those who screened positive for depression at the first 2019 survey decreased by 1.08. Those who screened negative for depression saw their PHQ-9 scores increase by 2.17 on average. As for anxiety, researchers detected no GAD-7 change among the study participants who screened positive for anxiety in the first survey, but did see an overall increase of 3.93 among those who had initially been evaluated as negative for the disorder. </p>
Risks among gender and sexual minorities<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fc3fd1ae68b77bbbf58a6995638d6d65"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EnUqDjCqg0A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The LGBTQ+ community is a vulnerable population to mental health concerns because of their fear of stigmatization and previous discriminatory experiences.</p> <p>Previous research by the Human Rights Campaign has found "that LGBTQ Americans are more likely than the <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/general+population/" target="_blank">general population</a> to live in poverty and lack access to adequate medical care, paid <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/medical+leave/" target="_blank">medical leave</a>, and basic necessities during the pandemic," said researcher Tari Hanneman, director of the health and aging program at the campaign.</p> <p>"Therefore, it is not surprising to see this increase in anxiety and depression among this population," Hanneman said in the release. "This study highlights the need for <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/health+care+professionals/" target="_blank">health care professionals</a> to support, affirm and provide <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/critical+care/" target="_blank">critical care</a> for the LGBTQ community to manage and maintain their mental health, as well as their physical health, during this pandemic."</p>
What should health care providers do?<p>The authors of the study recommend that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders in members of that community—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.</p><p>As cases of COVID-19 continue to mount, the sustained social distancing, potential isolation, economic precariousness, and personal illness, grief, and loss are bound to have increased and varied impacts on mental health. Effective treatments may include individual therapy and medications as well as more large-scale coronavirus support programs like peer-led groups and mindfulness practices. </p><p>"It will be important to find out what happens over time and to identify who is most at risk, so we can be sure to roll out public health interventions to support the mental health of our communities in the best and most effective ways," said Flentje.</p>
What we know about black holes is both fascinating and scary.
- When it comes to black holes, science simultaneously knows so much and so little, which is why they are so fascinating. Focusing on what we do know, this group of astronomers, educators, and physicists share some of the most incredible facts about the powerful and mysterious objects.
- A black hole is so massive that light (and anything else it swallows) can't escape, says Bill Nye. You can't see a black hole, theoretical physicists Michio Kaku and Christophe Galfard explain, because it is too dark. What you can see, however, is the distortion of light around it caused by its extreme gravity.
- Explaining one unsettling concept from astrophysics called spaghettification, astronomer Michelle Thaller says that "If you got close to a black hole there would be tides over your body that small that would rip you apart into basically a strand of spaghetti that would fall down the black hole."
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
A new study looks at what would happen to human language on a long journey to other star systems.
- A new study proposes that language could change dramatically on long space voyages.
- Spacefaring people might lose the ability to understand the people of Earth.
- This scenario is of particular concern for potential "generation ships".