The Key to Mental and Cognitive Health Is Diet — This Diet
It's official - it's a food intervention. Psychiatrist Drew Ramsey is going to be supportive, but he's also going to tell you to clean up your diet, and eat right for brain health.
Dr. Drew Ramsey is a psychiatrist, author, and farmer. He is one of psychiatry’s leading proponents of using dietary change to help balance moods, sharpen brain function and improve mental health. He is an assistant clinical professor of psychiatry at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and in active clinical practice in New York City where his work focuses on the clinical treatment of depression and anxiety. Using the latest brain science and nutritional research, modern treatments, and an array of delicious food he aims to help people live to their happiest, healthiest lives.
He is the co-creator of The Brain Food Scale, co-founder of National Kale Day 501(c)3, and a member of the medical review team at Dr. Oz’s webportal ShareCare. He frequently speaks and conducts workshops nationally, including two recent TEDx talks BrainFork and Brain Farmacy on food and brain health. His work and writing have been featured by The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Huffington Post, Atlantic.com, Prevention, Lancet Psychiatry, and NPR, which named him a “kale evangelist.” His recent bestseller 50 Shades of Kale has made this superfood accessible to thousands. His first book, The Happiness Diet: A Nutritional Prescription for a Sharp Brain, Balanced Mood and Lean, Energized Body explored the impact of modern diets on brain health.
Dr. Ramsey teaches and supervises Psychiatric Evaluation and in the Columbia University Adult Psychiatry Residency Program. He serves as a thesis mentor for graduate students at the Columbia University Institute of Human Nutrition where is also lectures on nutrition and the brain. From 2005 to 2008, he directed the Audubon Continuing Day Treatment Program, a bilingual service for the severely mentally ill located in the Washington Heights. He is a faculty member at the Center for Mind-Body Medicine. Dr. Ramsey is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. He completed his specialty training in adult psychiatry at Columbia University and the New York State Psychiatric Institute, received an M.D. from Indiana University School of Medicine and is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Earlham College.
Drew Ramsey: We know that brain health depends on proper nutrition. And so when we see people who have nutritional deficiencies, maybe, for example, having not enough vitamin B12 or missing certain fats like the omega-3 fats in their diet, we see that there's a vastly increased risk of illnesses like depression and anxiety. We also know that in clinical trials we can use those nutrients to actually treat brain illnesses like depression and dementia.
So every good psychiatric evaluation involves some lab testing just to make sure that the basic physiology, things like your thyroid, your B vitamin levels, the amount of potassium and sodium in your body that those are normal. And for a lot of people they are but for some people they aren't. And those are instantly reversible deficiencies. For example, if you have an iron deficiency you're going to be sluggish; you're going to have a brain fog. You're not going to feel well. It's interesting that we sort of start with evaluation in labs when really part of my work has been how do we get food into the conversation. And so I can assess you with a lab test, but, for example, if you never eat wild salmon or mussels or any good fatty fish that are a good source of those long chained omega-3 fats, we know that your levels are going to be low. So really we can learn a lot about someone's nutritional status just by asking them simple questions. It doesn't require expensive testings. In our clinic we simply ask people what they eat for breakfast lunch and dinner.
And that's really the goal of my book. Eat Complete is helping people - walking them through a nutritional assessment; it's called a Simple Food Assessment just because it's simple. And thinking about what are your challenges at every meal and what are the nutrients in the foods, most importantly the foods that are missing? We know that there are these very important nutrient-dense foods, the foods that have more nutrients for your brain per calorie. And we want those nutrients because you use them to make everything in your brain. If you think about it, every molecule in your brain starts at the end of your fork. And so really what I love about food in clinical practice - I'm a psychiatrist - is that it gives us an intervention that really you can focus on and employ every day and it's a way that we can help patients and people in general take care of themselves, really employee self-care with every bite. So that's the idea behind nutritional psychiatry, as it's being called.
So, a lot of times we focus on super foods or singular foods. I focused a lot of my work on kale. But really how we want to think is in food categories. And what I see in clinical practice over and over again is these same food categories are missing in people's diets. When we look at the eater landscape in America what we see is that people are really missing some of these key nutrients. They're eating very - I call it the beige diet or the 12-year-old boy diet, like lots of highly processed foods, not a lot of colors. We want to get people having more of those rainbows on their plate. So the food categories that I really love to see people put back into their diet when it comes to eating for brain health, we love to see the leafy greens. So things like kale, I've got some watercress right here that I particularly like; very, very dense green.
And nutrient dense, that's a very important concept, it's much more important than calories. Calories really only help us calculate nutrient density. And nutrient density is the bang for your buck. Something like this watercress it's going to be under 30 calories for a whole cup. And with this or any other leafy green you're going to get so much vitamin K, vitamin C, vitamin A. You're going to get fiber and you're going to get these phytonutrients. Those are molecules in plants that we understand - they're much more powerful than just antioxidants. So leafy greens and crunchy vegetables, or we call them the rainbow vegetables; you want to look at your plate and see colors. You want to see greens and reds and oranges because each of those colors represent a different phytonutrient, a different pallet of medicine, as it were. A lot of those powerful phytonutrients, they're what color a plant. And so we know everything with red like that red pepper has lycopene just like a tomato and watermelon. So colorful fruits and vegetables and leafy greens.
And then the category that so many people are missing is seafood. So we want to get more wild fish and particularly small fish like anchovies and sardines and there's all kinds of really fun creative ways to do this. I love to prescribe ceviche because it's a no-cook way of doing food. Something like a scallop or shrimp just in lime juice. So in terms of the nutrients, what are we trying to get into people's diets when we get to eat more of these leafy greens and seafood? And we're getting much more of these long-chained omega-3 fats. Those are very critical for brain health. The longest DHA is actually what brain cells are made of. And then others EPA, for example, is a very interesting fat that helps kind of thin the blood. Imagine that your blood is kind of silky smooth and that's obviously very important in terms of delivering oxygen to the brain and also preventing vascular disease as you age.
Other nutrients that we want to see a lot of in people's diets, we want to see more fiber, more plants because as we understand the connection between the gut and the brain you can't have a healthy brain without a healthy gut. I mean everybody just knows that I think a little intuitively, when you don't feel well down here you don't feel well up here. We also understand there's a lot of cross talk between the brain and the gut, just literally hundreds of thousands of neurons, nerve cells that communicate back and forth between the brain and the gut. And we know the gut has certain bacteria living in it, the bacteria that really get fostered and are promoted to grow when you eat more plants, more crunchy plants and more fermented foods.
That's one of the key nutrients that often gets left out of the conversation - fiber, because gut health is so key. So omega-3 fats, the B vitamins, vitamin B12 - which the food category for that are going to be mussels, clams and oysters - just find very high concentrations of both B12 and other minerals that are important for the brain, like zinc is one of my favorites. And so the idea behind nutritional psychiatry and behind Eat Complete is how do we look at what nutrients are missing and then translate that into food? So instead of telling people: 'Hey, you should eat more iron', we say 'Hey, you know what a surprising food is that's full of iron? Clams'. Or another great source of iron are these cashews, they're one of my favorites. Because along with leafy greens and seafood you want to get a lot of nuts, so almonds, cashews - here's a nice almond for vitamin E. And then these are some of my favorite medicines in my clinic, these are pumpkin seeds. And pumpkin seeds are pepitas, are great for three nutrients: zinc, magnesium and then tryptophan. Tryptophan is the amino acid that we use to make serotonin and dopamine. These are very, very important mood-regulating and learning-regulating neurotransmitters or chemicals in the brain. And so the idea is to give people a core set of foods. You know, again, with every bite you're getting all the nutrients that your brain needs.
Like the rest of the human body, our brain depends on good nutrition. In fact, it’s where everything starts and from where everything flows. Lack of certain vitamins can lead to drops of mood, cognitive ability and physical functionality. For these reasons, when getting a psychiatric evaluation it makes sense to call a nutrition intervention to make sure slumps in vitamin and nutrition levels aren’t the cause of common mental diagnoses such as depression and anxiety.
Drew Ramsey, MD and author of Eat Complete and co-author of 50 Shades of Kale, wants to make sure people know about the links between wellbeing and nutrition. A well-balanced diet is firmly linked to a person’s wellbeing. Without enough iron, as he points out, a person will feel sluggish, cloudy, and at the bottom of their game.
Most of us don’t consider every vitamin when we think up our meals. We may know that fish is a good source of protein, but we’ll stick to what we know, choosing to get our protein from steak or poultry of tofu. What a person might overlook is that fish such as salmon and tuna, and especially the smaller, oilier, and more sustainable fish like sardines and anchovies, are not just good sources of protein, but also a major haul of omega-3 fatty acids that are a critical brain booster. Omega-3 are long-chained acids, and a type called DHA is actually what brain cells are made of. So raise a sardine on toast in the air and say cheers to a more robust brain.
In Drew Ramsey’s clinical practice, checking to make sure people are getting all the vitamins and nutrients they need doesn’t necessarily require expensive and expansive testing – sometimes it just requires a few questions, such as do you eat fish, mussels, clams? How about cashews?
That’s what Ramsey considered while he was writing his book Eat Complete, and designing the assessment practice in it. Ramsay is on a mission to translate nutrients that are hard to quantify into more practical food categories, to help people know what they’re missing and how they can fill in their nutritional gaps. Eat Complete looks at phytonutrients, and how to recognize them. As Ramsey describes, phytonutrients are often leafy greens and colorful fruits and vegetables with nutritional benefits beyond their widely known antioxidants. Ramsey reminds us what we should instinctively know: when looking down at a plate, if you see a wide variety of colors (natural ones, not M&Ms;), you’re doing it right. From red tomatoes to green kale and orange carrots to purple cabbage, each color literally represents a nutrient content that is shared in other vegetables of its color. So mix it up to reach far and wide across the nutrient spectrum.
Armed with more workable knowledge of which foods will do what, your wellbeing could improve across all facets. You’ll feel more energetic, have more cognitive clarity, your blood quality will be smoother (yes smoother, it prevents vascular disease and helps oxygen get delivered efficiently around the body), and your gut health, which is being increasingly linked to mental health, will also rocket upwards. Interestingly, self-congratulatory pats on the back have also been known to increase.
Drew Ramsey's book is Eat Complete.
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Every star we can see, including our sun, was born in one of these violent clouds.
This article was originally published on our sister site, Freethink.
An international team of astronomers has conducted the biggest survey of stellar nurseries to date, charting more than 100,000 star-birthing regions across our corner of the universe.
Stellar nurseries: Outer space is filled with clouds of dust and gas called nebulae. In some of these nebulae, gravity will pull the dust and gas into clumps that eventually get so big, they collapse on themselves — and a star is born.
These star-birthing nebulae are known as stellar nurseries.
The challenge: Stars are a key part of the universe — they lead to the formation of planets and produce the elements needed to create life as we know it. A better understanding of stars, then, means a better understanding of the universe — but there's still a lot we don't know about star formation.
This is partly because it's hard to see what's going on in stellar nurseries — the clouds of dust obscure optical telescopes' view — and also because there are just so many of them that it's hard to know what the average nursery is like.
The survey: The astronomers conducted their survey of stellar nurseries using the massive ALMA telescope array in Chile. Because ALMA is a radio telescope, it captures the radio waves emanating from celestial objects, rather than the light.
"The new thing ... is that we can use ALMA to take pictures of many galaxies, and these pictures are as sharp and detailed as those taken by optical telescopes," Jiayi Sun, an Ohio State University (OSU) researcher, said in a press release.
"This just hasn't been possible before."
Over the course of the five-year survey, the group was able to chart more than 100,000 stellar nurseries across more than 90 nearby galaxies, expanding the amount of available data on the celestial objects tenfold, according to OSU researcher Adam Leroy.
New insights: The survey is already yielding new insights into stellar nurseries, including the fact that they appear to be more diverse than previously thought.
"For a long time, conventional wisdom among astronomers was that all stellar nurseries looked more or less the same," Sun said. "But with this survey we can see that this is really not the case."
"While there are some similarities, the nature and appearance of these nurseries change within and among galaxies," he continued, "just like cities or trees may vary in important ways as you go from place to place across the world."
Astronomers have also learned from the survey that stellar nurseries aren't particularly efficient at producing stars and tend to live for only 10 to 30 million years, which isn't very long on a universal scale.
Looking ahead: Data from the survey is now publicly available, so expect to see other researchers using it to make their own observations about stellar nurseries in the future.
"We have an incredible dataset here that will continue to be useful," Leroy said. "This is really a new view of galaxies and we expect to be learning from it for years to come."
Tiny specks of space debris can move faster than bullets and cause way more damage. Cleaning it up is imperative.
- NASA estimates that more than 500,000 pieces of space trash larger than a marble are currently in orbit. Estimates exceed 128 million pieces when factoring in smaller pieces from collisions. At 17,500 MPH, even a paint chip can cause serious damage.
- To prevent this untrackable space debris from taking out satellites and putting astronauts in danger, scientists have been working on ways to retrieve large objects before they collide and create more problems.
- The team at Clearspace, in collaboration with the European Space Agency, is on a mission to capture one such object using an autonomous spacecraft with claw-like arms. It's an expensive and very tricky mission, but one that could have a major impact on the future of space exploration.
This is the first episode of Just Might Work, an original series by Freethink, focused on surprising solutions to our biggest problems.
Catch more Just Might Work episodes on their channel: https://www.freethink.com/shows/just-might-work
The finding is remarkably similar to the Dunning-Kruger effect, which describes how incompetent people tend to overestimate their own competency.
- Recent studies asked participants to rate the attractiveness of themselves and other participants, who were strangers.
- The studies kept yielding the same finding: unattractive people overestimate their attractiveness, while attractive people underrate their looks.
- Why this happens is unclear, but it doesn't seem to be due to a general inability to judge attractiveness.
There's no shortage of disparities between attractive and unattractive people. Studies show that the best-looking among us tend to have an easier time making money, receiving help, avoiding punishment, and being perceived as competent. (Sure, research also suggests beautiful people have shorter relationships, but they also have more sexual partners, and more options for romantic relationships. So call it a wash.)
Now, new research reveals another disparity: Unattractive people seem less able to accurately judge their own attractiveness, and they tend to overestimate their looks. In contrast, beautiful people tend to rate themselves more accurately. If anything, they underestimate their attractiveness.
The research, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, involved six studies that asked participants to rate the attractiveness of themselves and other participants, who were strangers. The studies also asked participants to predict how others might rate them.
In the first study, lead author Tobias Greitemeyer found that the participants who were most likely to overestimate their attractiveness were among the least attractive people in the study, based on average ratings.
Ratings of subjective attractiveness as a function of the participant's objective attractiveness (Study 1)
"Overall, unattractive participants judged themselves to be of about average attractiveness and they showed very little awareness that strangers do not share this view. In contrast, attractive participants had more insights into how attractive they actually are. [...] It thus appears that unattractive people maintain illusory self‐perceptions of their attractiveness, whereas attractive people's self‐views are more grounded in reality."
Why do unattractive people overestimate their attractiveness? Could it be because they want to maintain a positive self-image, so they delude themselves? After all, previous research has shown that people tend to discredit or "forget" negative social feedback, which seems to help protect a sense of self-worth.
To find out, Greitemeyer conducted a study that aimed to put participants in a positive, non-defensive mindset before rating attractiveness. He did that by asking participants questions that affirmed parts of their personality that had nothing to do with physical appearance, such as: "Have you ever been generous and selfless to another person?" Yet, this didn't change how participants rated themselves, suggesting that unattractive people aren't overestimating their looks out of defensiveness.
The studies kept yielding the same finding: unattractive people overestimate their attractiveness. Does that bias sound familiar? If so, you might be thinking of the Dunning-Kruger effect, which describes how incompetent people tend to overestimate their own competency. Why? Because they lack the metacognitive skills needed to discern their own shortcomings.
Greitemeyer found that unattractive people were worse at differentiating between attractive and unattractive people. But the finding that unattractive people may have different beauty ideals (or, more plainly, weaker ability to judge attractiveness) did "not have an impact on how they perceive themselves."
In short, it remains a mystery exactly why unattractive people overestimate their looks. Greitemeyer concluded that, while most people are decent at judging the attractiveness of others, "it appears that those who are unattractive do not know that they are unattractive."
Unattractive people aren't completely unaware
The results of one study suggested that unattractive people aren't completely in the dark about their looks. In the study, unattractive people were shown a set of photos of highly attractive and unattractive people, and they were asked to select photos of people with comparable attractiveness. Most unattractive people chose to compare themselves with similarly unattractive people.
"The finding that unattractive participants selected unattractive stimulus persons with whom they would compare their attractiveness to suggests that they may have an inkling that they are less attractive than they want it to be," Greitemeyer wrote.
Metal-like materials have been discovered in a very strange place.
- Bristle worms are odd-looking, spiky, segmented worms with super-strong jaws.
- Researchers have discovered that the jaws contain metal.
- It appears that biological processes could one day be used to manufacture metals.
The bristle worm, also known as polychaetes, has been around for an estimated 500 million years. Scientists believe that the super-resilient species has survived five mass extinctions, and there are some 10,000 species of them.
Be glad if you haven't encountered a bristle worm. Getting stung by one is an extremely itchy affair, as people who own saltwater aquariums can tell you after they've accidentally touched a bristle worm that hitchhiked into a tank aboard a live rock.
Bristle worms are typically one to six inches long when found in a tank, but capable of growing up to 24 inches long. All polychaetes have a segmented body, with each segment possessing a pair of legs, or parapodia, with tiny bristles. ("Polychaeate" is Greek for "much hair.") The parapodia and its bristles can shoot outward to snag prey, which is then transferred to a bristle worm's eversible mouth.
The jaws of one bristle worm — Platynereis dumerilii — are super-tough, virtually unbreakable. It turns out, according to a new study from researchers at the Technical University of Vienna, this strength is due to metal atoms.
Metals, not minerals
Fireworm, a type of bristle wormCredit: prilfish / Flickr
This is pretty unusual. The study's senior author Christian Hellmich explains: "The materials that vertebrates are made of are well researched. Bones, for example, are very hierarchically structured: There are organic and mineral parts, tiny structures are combined to form larger structures, which in turn form even larger structures."
The bristle worm jaw, by contrast, replaces the minerals from which other creatures' bones are built with atoms of magnesium and zinc arranged in a super-strong structure. It's this structure that is key. "On its own," he says, "the fact that there are metal atoms in the bristle worm jaw does not explain its excellent material properties."
Just deformable enough
Credit: by-studio / Adobe Stock
What makes conventional metal so strong is not just its atoms but the interactions between the atoms and the ways in which they slide against each other. The sliding allows for a small amount of elastoplastic deformation when pressure is applied, endowing metals with just enough malleability not to break, crack, or shatter.
Co-author Florian Raible of Max Perutz Labs surmises, "The construction principle that has made bristle worm jaws so successful apparently originated about 500 million years ago."
Raible explains, "The metal ions are incorporated directly into the protein chains and then ensure that different protein chains are held together." This leads to the creation of three-dimensional shapes the bristle worm can pack together into a structure that's just malleable enough to withstand a significant amount of force.
"It is precisely this combination," says the study's lead author Luis Zelaya-Lainez, "of high strength and deformability that is normally characteristic of metals.
So the bristle worm jaw is both metal-like and yet not. As Zelaya-Lainez puts it, "Here we are dealing with a completely different material, but interestingly, the metal atoms still provide strength and deformability there, just like in a piece of metal."
Observing the creation of a metal-like material from biological processes is a bit of a surprise and may suggest new approaches to materials development. "Biology could serve as inspiration here," says Hellmich, "for completely new kinds of materials. Perhaps it is even possible to produce high-performance materials in a biological way — much more efficiently and environmentally friendly than we manage today."