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Cancer’s Genetic Signature
Dr. Green is the director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, one of the 27 institutes and centers that make up the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the federal agency that funds and conducts medical research. The NIH Intramural Sequencing Center is a lab that Dr. Green founded and which is part of the National Human Genome Research Institute.
Prior to this appointment, he was the Scientific Director of NHGRI, a position he held since 2002. In addition, Green serves as chief of the NHGRI Genome Technology Branch (since 1996) and director of the NIH Intramural Sequencing Center (NISC) (since 1997).
Eric Green: So cancer is fundamentally a disease of the genome. I mean the reason a tumor grows is because the cells in that tumor have picked up glitches. They picked up mutations. They picked up changes in the DNA that make those cells grow out of control. It’s like pressing an accelerator in a car and just keep it going. It just grows and grows and grows and grows. And the reason why is because something’s broken in the genome. And so what’s happened in the past ten years in particular since the end of the Human Genome Project is the recognition that we can read out the genome, the sequence of the tumor’s DNA and gain insights from that tumor with respect to what had been the DNA changes that have led to those cells becoming a cancer.
And that is being done on a very large scale in many countries around the world and here including the United States where literally very defined cancers are being studied. Hundreds of specimens are being collected from people and those genomes of those tumors are being read out and have all that data be put on the Internet for scientists to be able to collect it all and analyze it. And we are learning a tremendous amount about cancer in many very interesting and surprising ways. And among the many things that are happening is it’s giving us insights about how to better classify different types of cancer and different subtypes of cancer. And I often make the point that some of the earliest implementation of genomics in the medical situation is gonna be with cancer.
And it’s already happening now and I think it’s gonna grow considerably. Where I think standard of care for many types of cancer are gonna be get that tumor, read out it’s DNA, sequence it’s genome and based on what you’ve seen what’s wrong with that tumor, not by looking at it under a microscope only or by looking at it in a sort of a gross fashion but actually looking inside it’s blueprint, you will be able to have a much better way of deciding what types of treatments to pursue and have a much better idea about what’s wrong in that kind of tumor. And some of those things will also be very helpful for leading to possibly new developments of therapies.
Directed/Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Dillon Fitton
Cancer is fundamentally a disease of the genome. What has happened in the past ten years since the end of the Human Genome Project is the recognition that we can read out the genome, and read the sequence of a tumor’s DNA and gain insights from that tumor.
Building a personal connection with students can counteract some negative side effects of remote learning.
- Not being able to engage with students in-person due to the pandemic has presented several new challenges for educators, both technical and social. Digital tools have changed the way we all think about learning, but George Couros argues that more needs to be done to make up for what has been lost during "emergency remote teaching."
- One interesting way he has seen to bridge that gap and strengthen teacher-student and student-student relationships is through an event called Identity Day. Giving students the opportunity to share something they are passionate about makes them feel more connected and gets them involved in their education.
- "My hope is that we take these skills and these abilities we're developing through this process and we actually become so much better for our kids when we get back to our face-to-face setting," Couros says. He adds that while no one can predict the future, we can all do our part to adapt to it.
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.