Evolutionary biases that are hard-wired into our behavior are "really hard to turn off, even when we're aware of them," says Yale psychologist Laurie Santos. But at least being aware of them can help us understand why we do what we do. "The fact that we can kind of think twice, pause,
kind of inhibit this sort of instinctual bias... that gives us a weapon
against these sorts of biases," says Santos. "But in some sense we have to know
they’re there in the first place to actually implement these kind of 'Wait, wait, wait, let me stop, pause, think about it and try to come up
with the right decision.'"
In her most recent Big Think interview, Santos talks about some of the more interesting ways that we can see the roots of these kinds of behaviors in our primate relatives. She says for a long time it was difficult for researchers to understand the motivations of monkeys because they were looking at the problem from a human perspective. In order to understand monkeys, she says, they had to learn to think like monkeys.
Santos also talks about research that seems to indicate similarities to human prejudice in Rhesus monkeys. Evidently monkeys have similar ways of reacting to "in" groups and "out" groups, indicating the same cognitive processing "at the roots of human sexism, human racism, human ageism, basically any form of human group-ism," she says.
Looking at chimpanzees and bonobos, the closest animal relatives to humans, can be somewhat confusing, says Santos. Chimpanzees are aggressive and warlike, while bonobos are very peaceful, social, and sex-oriented. "There’s a bit of a puzzle in the field of what parts of these two guys did the humans get, you know, are we more like chimpanzees, are we more like bonobos?" she notes. And despite how advanced our species is, Santos notes that humans know maddeningly little about why we have the reproductive system that we have. "We know much more about the reproductive systems of pipe fish and swans and lions, then we do about our own species," says Santos. "Which is kind of pathetic."
The animal kingdom is full of colorful ways that males woo mates, and Santos shares one of her favorites: the mating ritual of the buff-breasted sandpiper. "It's this otherwise kind of drab-looking brown Arctic bird," she says of the sandpiper. "It’s drab looking because it lives in the Arctic, very hard to get food and do everything. But it kind of allows for its beauty to come out in really strange ways. And one of these ways is that it has incredibly attractive armpit. So, its armpit is very white, very clean and it will do flash displays for females where males will kind of get out in a field and kind of flash its armpit and if the females like the armpit, they can fly from miles and miles and then they’ll do this kind of wonderful armpit display and the females, you know, fall for it."
International poker champion Liv Boeree teaches decision-making for Big Think Edge.
How can we use the resources that are already on the Moon to make human exploration of the satellite as economical as possible?
If you were transported to the Moon this very instant, you would surely and rapidly die. That's because there's no atmosphere, the surface temperature varies from a roasting 130 degrees Celsius (266 F) to a bone-chilling minus 170 C (minus 274 F). If the lack of air or horrific heat or cold don't kill you then micrometeorite bombardment or solar radiation will. By all accounts, the Moon is not a hospitable place to be.
An MIT study predicts when artificial intelligence will take over for humans in different occupations.
While technology develops at exponential speed, transforming how we go about our everyday tasks and extending our lives, it also offers much to worry about. In particular, many top minds think that automation will cost humans their employment, with up to 47% of all jobs gone in the next 25 years. And chances are, this number could be even higher and the massive job loss will come earlier.
"I was so moved when I saw the cells stir," said 90-year-old study co-author Akira Iritani. "I'd been hoping for this for 20 years."
- The team managed to stimulate nucleus-like structures to perform some biological processes, but not cell division.
- Unless better technology and DNA samples emerge in the future, it's unlikely that scientists will be able to clone a woolly mammoth.
- Still, studying the DNA of woolly mammoths provides valuable insights into the genetic adaptations that allowed them to survive in unique environments.
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