How brothers become strangers, and vice versa

Two remarkable etymological maps show twin forces at work throughout human history.

Image by u/Virble, reproduced with kind permission.
  • These two maps capture the centrifugal and centripetal forces at work throughout human history.
  • See how the Proto-Indo-European word for 'brother' spreads and changes, in both sound and meaning.
  • And how the Proto-Germanic word for 'stranger' now is a familiar fixture of European toponymy.
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11 things you probably didn’t know about how you communicate online

Researchers tracking the migration of words to digital spaces have uncovered some surprising facts.

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  • Beyond Zoom and email, channels like social chat and real-time gaming communities are surging.
  • These days, brands don't wait for us to find them online – they're coming to us on social media.
  • Switching to airplane mode and spending some time in the real world every now and then can be good for both body and mind.
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New lunar map should help U.S. return to Moon

USGS's 'Unified Geologic Map of the Moon' is the definitive blueprint of the lunar surface.

Image: USGS, public domain
  • Combining old maps with new data, the USGS has produced a definitive blueprint of the lunar surface.
  • The new map will help scientists and astronauts find their way around the Moon.
  • NASA's aim is to land the first woman on the Moon as early as 2024.
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Greater Adria, a lost continent hiding in plain sight

Most of it was eaten by Earth's mantle, but scraped-off bits survive in the Alps and other mountain ranges.

Image: Utrecht University
  • Following a 10-year survey, geologists discover a lost continent in the Mediterranean.
  • 'Greater Adria' existed for 100 million years, and was probably "great for scuba diving".
  • Most of it has been swallowed up by Earth's mantle, but bits of it survive.
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Why the south of Westeros is the north of Ireland

As Game of Thrones ends, a revealing resolution to its perplexing geography.

Image: YouTube / Doosh
  • The fantasy world of Game of Thrones was inspired by real places and events.
  • But the map of Westeros is a good example of the perplexing relation between fantasy and reality.
  • Like Britain, it has a Wall in the North, but the map only really clicks into place if you add Ireland.
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