Nazi supporters held huge rallies and summer camps for kids throughout the United States in the 1930s.
- During the 1930s, thousands of Americans sympathized with the Nazis, holding huge rallies.
- The rallies were organized by the American German Bund, which wanted to spread Nazi ideology.
- Nazi supporters also organized summer camps for kids to teach them their values.
A Bund parade in New York, October 30, 1939.
Credit: Library of Congress
Credit: Herald Tribune
Postcards from Camp Siegfried
The Nazis actively searched for Atlantis, seeing it as important to their mythology.
- The mythical city of Atlantis was first mentioned in Plato's writings.
- Top Nazis, including Heimlich Himmler, tried to find the city through expeditions.
- The island was key to Nazi thinking about the "Aryan race".
Athanasius Kircher's map of Atlantis, locating it in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, from Mundus Subterraneus 1669, published in Amsterdam. South is on the top in the map's orientation.<p><strong>Eric Kurlander,</strong> the professor of history at Stetson University, traced the strange movements in Germany of about a hundred years ago in his book "<a href="https://read.amazon.com/kp/embed?asin=B071PBGSS5&preview=newtab&linkCode=kpe&ref_=cm_sw_r_kb_dp_JVpGzbKT3528H&tag=thewaspos09-20" target="_blank">Hitler's Monsters: A Supernatural History of the Third Reich</a>". He contends that one of the most influential beliefs was <strong>Ariosophy</strong>, championed by <strong><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B6rg_Lanz_von_Liebenfels" target="_blank">Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels</a>.</strong> This esoteric doctrine "prophesied the resurgence of a lost Aryan civilization peopled by Nordic 'God Men.'"</p><p>Lanz told the myths of these "God Men" in a magazine called <em>Ostara</em> which he claims to have given in 1909 to none other than a young Adolf Hitler. In the issues, muscular Aryans defended barely-dressed blonde women from scary "ape-men", as wrote Michael Dirda in the <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/books/it-turns-out-raiders-of-the-lost-ark-wasnt-so-far-off-about-the-nazis/2017/08/01/d22f640e-75f5-11e7-8f39-eeb7d3a2d304_story.html?utm_term=.fed266eaa794" target="_blank">Washington Post.</a></p><p>Were there actually such Aryans whose lineage can be traced to the Nazi ideals? The word "Aryan" generally designated people of Indo-European heritage but in racist Nazi thinking, the idea of the "Aryan race" has come to mean the supposed existence of a distinct and superior race of Germanic people – a proposition not supported by facts. The only historical Aryans have been Indo-Iranian people who spread their languages throughout Eurasia from 4000 to 1000 BC.</p>
Heinrich Himmler<p>In 1938, Himmler's interests (which also revolved around finding the Holy Grail of Christian mythology) resulted in sending an expedition team of Nazi scientists, led by the explorer and zoologist <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Sch%C3%A4fer" target="_blank"><strong>Ernst Schäfer</strong></a>, to the Himalayas. The location was chosen specifically thanks to the work of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_Wirth" target="_blank"><strong>Herman Wirth,</strong></a> a contemporary scholar of ancient religions. Wirth conjectured that there is a reason for why similar-looking symbols can be found in different parts of the world. That reason is the race of people who lived in Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean (likely between Portugal and Britain). The scholar proposed that survivors of sinking Atlantis fled to high places, vowing to avoid the sea that ruined their civilization initially. That's how the descendants supposedly ended up in Tibet.</p><p>During the Tibet expedition, Nazi scientists collected thousands of specimens while comparing locals to a list of facial features and concluded that they descended from the Aryans. "Hitler and his anthropologists thought that by measuring people's heads you could tell which race they were," explained Sir Richard. </p>
Ernst Schäfer during his last expedition to Tibet. 1938.<p>Declaring that they found out what happened to Atlantis was a boost to the myth-fueled Nazi war machine. Becoming convinced that Tibetans were survivors of Atlantis also hardened Himmler's views on racial purity. He decided that the Aryan master race was by now much weaker due to intermixing and needed to be purified (via the ensuing Holocaust).</p><p>The mission to Tibet was not the only such endeavor by the Nazis. Similar efforts to find the Aryans were dispatched to Sweden, Scotland, France and Iceland. </p><p>One German archaeologist (and eventual SS commander) <strong>Edmund Kiss</strong> promoted the idea that Bolivia's famous historical site called <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiwanaku" target="_blank"><strong>Tiwanaku</strong></a> was actually Atlantis. He believed in the elaborate and outlandish <a href="https://bigthink.com/paul-ratner/the-weird-ice-world-cosmology-passionately-believed-by-hitler-and-other-top-nazis" target="_self">World Ice Theory,</a> which also had support of Adolf Hitler and other top Nazis. One of the theory's postulates was that Earth at some point collided with its moon, a cataclysm that led to the destruction of Atlantis and an ice age on the planet. Trying to survive their new glacier-filled reality, ancient Atlanteans were believed to have fled to the high Andes, where life could still survive. That's how they would have ended up in Bolivia. </p>
Hypothetical reconstructions of Tiwanaku in Edmund Kiss's book Das gläserne Meer. 1930.<p>While Kiss's work found enthusiastic support in Germany, especially as he <a href="http://theappendix.net/issues/2013/4/andean-atlantis-race-science-and-the-nazi-occult-in-bolivia" target="_blank">wrote statements</a> proclaiming that "the works of art and the architectural style of the prehistoric city are certainly not of Indian origin." He added that rather they were "probably the creations of Nordic men who arrived in the Andean highlands as representatives of a special civilization."</p><p>Nazis publicized such "findings" about the Nordic city of Tiwanaku in Hitler youth publications and other party newspapers. Kiss's larger Himmler-sponsored expedition to Bolivia never materialized, however, due to the start of World War 2, <a href="http://theappendix.net/issues/2013/4/andean-atlantis-race-science-and-the-nazi-occult-in-bolivia" target="_blank">as writes historian Matthew Gildner.</a></p><p>Check out this fascinating documentary on "The Nazi Quest for the Holy Grail" which includes the search for Atlantis here:</p>
Why have some conspiracy theories been pushed back into the public? Because when you try to force them out of the mainstream, they'll find a wider audience on the fringes.
Liberal college students have taken to shouting down certain right-leaning speakers on campus that they don't agree with. Michael Shermer, the publisher of Skeptic Magazine, thinks that is the worst thing you can do. He posits that all you do when you prevent someone from speaking is make certain people want to hear them more. This has led to the rise of the conspiracy theorists and why fringe ideas—from something as silly as flat-earth believers to something as morally reprehensible as Nazism and Holocaust deniers—have been pushed back into the mainstream. Michael's new book is Heavens on Earth: The Scientific Search for the Afterlife, Immortality, and Utopia.
Nietzsche's ideas were used by the Nazi's to justify their atrocities, but did Nietzsche actually support Fascism?
If there was one philosopher the fascists of the mid-20th century loved, it was Nietzsche. He was so adored by them that Hitler gifted Mussolini the complete works of Nietzsche for his birthday. The Nietzschean ideals of anti-egalitarianism, the Superman, and the will to power inspired them to act, and millions died because of it. They adored his ideas, and anointed him as the prophet of their ideology.
And most of it was due to misunderstandings and willful changes.
A classic law of Internet debate explains why bringing up Hitler is a terrible idea as White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer found out in a disastrous press conference.