from the world's big
It's normal if you're not productive in your creativity all the time. Even the greats took breaks.
- Creative types can feel an overwhelming sense of pressure to be prolific, especially in times like these when, in theory, free time is abundant. Creativity is a resource that takes different forms and like other resources, it has its limits.
- According to Elizabeth Alexander, poet and president of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, it's common for artists to have gaps in the chronology of their work. Familial commitments, depression, and health troubles are among the very valid reasons to not be producing creative works.
- Borrowing a term from jazz musicians, Alexander explains that creatives can also go through a period of 'woodshedding,' a term that refers to the practice of working on one's craft and experimenting in a private place (like a wood shed) until it is ready to be shared with the world.
A study finds that while musical newbies exercise the brain's so-called creative hemisphere, pros have moved on.
- Professional jazz musicians are seen in EEGs as using mostly their left brain hemisphere, which is considered the logical/analytical side.
- The right hemisphere may be more suitable to the sort of creative invention required of people still learning how to play.
- Is the study's conclusion about jazz, or is it about competence?
The cliché is that creativity happens in the right hemisphere of the brain, while more analytic activities go on in the left. While this isn't entirely untrue, it's an over-simplification of how the brain works. In fact, according to a new study from Drexel University's Creativity Research Lab, expert jazz performers are more likely to use the left side of their brains.
Setting the stage
Image source: Kounios, et al
The study, "Dual-process contributions to creativity in jazz improvisations: An SPM-EEG study," is published in the journal NeuroImage. It was led by David Rosen of Secret Chord Technology, a new startup that bills itself as "an A.I. software platform that uses advanced analytics based on our globally acclaimed research on the neuroscience of music enjoyment to give you insights that will help you cut through the noise." In other words, they say they have the ability to predict whether or not people will like a given piece of music, based on neuroscience. It's an interesting topic in its own right.
For the study, Rosen and Drexel psychology professor John Kounios recorded high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) from 32 jazz-guitar players. The researchers used EEGs for tracking brain activity because fMRIs more commonly used for neuroscientific investigations of music require participants to be laying down while watching their hand in a mirror as it plays a keyboard — a weak representation of the actual experience of performing.
Some of the players in the study were highly experienced while others were less so, more like students of the form. Speaking of the form, the word and genre "jazz" encompasses a wide range of musics, from Dixieland, to improvisational bebop-based styles, to tightly orchestrated band arrangements, to free-form painting with sound. While the study doesn't specify what it means by "jazz," it does quote Miles Davis and Charlie Parker, pointing the discussion firmly in the bebop direction.
Each player was provided lead sheets — simple melody-and-chord notation — for six jazz tunes. They were instructed to improvise for about two minutes around each of these melodies, playing along with pre-recorded drums, bass, and piano accompaniment as their performances were recorded. The 16-bar tunes were constructed to be all of a similar playing difficulty, and they were all at 144 beats-per-minute, a pretty brisk tempo, especially for less experienced players.
On the right, students. On the left, pros.
Image source: Dominik Scythe/Unsplash
Afterward, the recordings were rated by four expert jazz musicians for player categorization, creativity, and other qualities. Combining these ratings with EEG measurements and analysis revealed two things:
- EEG measurements for those performances rated as high-quality (the most competent and professional) indicated that most of the accompanying activity was in the brain's left hemisphere.
- The less-expert performances were characterized by activity in the right hemisphere.
The study explains pros' left-brain activity as evidence of their performing in an enhanced state of flow: "This aligns with theoretical models of jazz improvisation which posit that an individual is performing at his or her peak of arousal and ability when entering a flow state."
Image source: Massimo Sartirama/Unsplash
"If creativity is defined in terms of the quality of a product, such as a song, invention, poem or painting, then the left hemisphere plays a key role. However, if creativity is understood as a person's ability to deal with novel, unfamiliar situations, as is the case for novice improvisers, then the right hemisphere plays the leading role." — John Kounios
Jazz, particularly bebop-based jazz, is a special case in music in at least one key regard, as Kounios' comment suggests. Improvisation in this type of music is felt by many to be inherently more intellectual than creative, concerned primarily with the strategic — some might say "mathematical" — accurate deployment of existing musical scales and motifs rather than the creation of something genuinely new. Much emphasis in this form is placed on memorization and technique, which fits perfectly well with the study's left-brain findings. This type of jazz playing may be closer to recitation than creation— its creativity comes in the choices made as to which elements to recite.
For students and less-experienced players, on the other hand, it's all new, and theirs is much more an experience of genuine right-brained exploration and creativity, as they fumble their way toward understanding the form and learning how to produce its auditory elements. While often less successful for listeners, this is at the heart of creativity: turning bits of the known into something new. Of course their right hemispheres are active.
The professional musician's brain
For any type of music — perhaps any type of art — it may well be that the experienced performer is always going to be working more from their left hemisphere. Years of practice produces competence, and perhaps more importantly, familiarity, with the material to be performed. There's little exploring to be done, just competent execution. It can still be fascinating to watch a true musical great perform, their every gesture being forehead-smacking evidence of almost unbelievable skill.
Creativity, though, is its own show, and worthy of appreciation. At a high-school choir concert, for example, there's little taken for granted: The singers are right there in the moment, on-edge for fear of mistakes, and fully charged-up. It's nothing short of exciting.
Fortunately, there doesn't have to be a trade-off between the two. Our greatest musicians never stop pushing at the boundaries of their own skills, repeatedly stranding themselves in the unknown without a map except for an unquenchable thirst for that new, thrilling sound they've never before heard.
We each have a way of moving to music that is so unique a computer can use it to identify us.
- The way we dance to music is so signature to an individual that a computer can now identify us by our unique dancing "fingerprint" with over 90 percent accuracy.
- The AI had a harder time identifying dancers who were trying to dance to metal and jazz music.
- Researchers say they are interested in what the results of this study reveal about human response to music, rather than potential surveillance uses.
An accidental discovery<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjYwMzM4Mi9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzODE1MTA3M30.nigQsXssEGwWWBbRHA43qF0Yg0hlZHA4UeFQsXLne68/img.gif?width=980" id="a1835" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="e181a18936b549000538b2d3fda72c56" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Genre matters a little<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjYwMzMxMS9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MzY1NzUyOX0.fTXoKAjw8bFS0eOib7y9oQHzKqeDsjqTSfPs97VEzLM/img.gif?width=980" id="e7acc" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="eb15b36b3e424bc6a2fcc06ebafd0307" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" /><p>The researchers noticed that some genres might have more influence on the way an individual dances than others. For instance, the AI had a harder time identifying dancers who were trying to dance to Metal and Jazz music. They aren't exactly an intuitive genre to groove to, so we all tend to go about it using the same types of movements.</p><p>"There is a strong cultural association between Metal and certain types of movement, like headbanging," Emily Carlson, the first author of the study, <a href="https://www.jyu.fi/fi/ajankohtaista/arkisto/2020/01/tanssityylisi-on-kuin-sormenjalki-ja-tietokone-tunnistaa-sinut-sen-perusteella" target="_blank">explained</a>. "It's probable that Metal caused more dancers to move in similar ways, making it harder to tell them apart.</p>
Will dance-recognition software become a thing?<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="e4c467869863cc2a2047c8ebe5c70d13"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/FFnC6yJa1mk?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>It's possible that dance-recognition software could become something similar to face-recognition software, but it doesn't seem as practical. For now, researchers say that they are not as interested in possible surveillance uses of this technology, but rather what the results of this study say about how humans respond to music.</p><p>"We have a lot of new questions to ask, like whether our movement signatures stay the same across our lifespan, whether we can detect differences between cultures based on these movement signatures, and how well humans are able to recognize individuals from their dance movements compared to computers," concluded Carlson. </p><p>So don't worry about being identified at nightclub by an AI via your signature dance moves... yet. </p>
Hierarchies of taste exist in our society, but their roots often reflect more than just the quality of work.
- "Taste" in art and entertainment can often represent societal hierarchies, prejudices, and inequalities.
- Part of the job of a critic is to refuse categorization of art as "high" or "low."
- By challenging and redefining these assumptions, critics can level the playing field to include work from all walks of life.
The money will go to her foundation, but is the tour really in the 'Back to Black' chanteuse's best interest?
- Winehouse died of alcohol poisoning in 2011 at the age of 27.
- Los Angeles company BASE Hologram is set to put the show together, with a reported tour next year...
- ... but many of her fans aren't happy with the news.
Swedish band ABBA.
Photo: OLLE LINDEBORG/AFP/Getty Images