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Depression begins in the gut. More importantly, possible treatment emerges.
5-HTP could help both constipation and depression, but dosage matters.
- New research at Columbia University Irving Medical Center points to a potential treatment for depression.
- One-third of all sufferers of depression suffer from constipation, strengthening the connection between the mind-gut problem.
- Slow release 5-HTP was shown to alleviate both constipation and depression in mice.
In 1890, psychologist William James applied the term plasticity to human behavior, implying that humans have the ability to change how we act. Until that point, the science community generally believed fate to be genetic: once born our story was pre-told, a convenient philosophy for those with power and resources, who could simply claim, "it was destined by birth."
Unsurprisingly, James's revelation didn't change many minds. The "born this way" mentality remained the driving narrative. Over three decades later, behaviorist Karl Lashley's research on rhesus monkeys showed that neuronal pathways can indeed change—speculation largely derided by his peers. It would take neuroscientists another four decades, over 70 years after James's initial comments, to come around to the fact that brains are malleable.
Perhaps more importantly, this research also showed no distinction between the murkier realm of mind and the now-measurable domain of neurochemistry. Researchers finally understood that mind and matter are not separate domains but interdependent and necessary pieces of the human puzzle. Though dualism remains our biological inheritance, we can educate ourselves beyond this primal instinct.
Thanks to research by neuroscientist Paul Bach-y-Rita, neuroplasticity became common currency. While fundamental in the field today, behaviorists and psychologists took decades to come around. As psychiatrist Norman Doidge writes in his breakthrough book on the topic, The Brain That Changes Itself,
"The idea that the brain is like a muscle that grows with exercise is not just a metaphor."
We can be astonished that science couldn't recognize a fact as basic as neuroplasticity. Yet ironically, we're wired to not understand how we're wired. Minds might change but they're slow, especially when we're invested in a competing philosophy. This is playing out in the middle of another controversial suggestion that, in a decade's time, will seem like common sense: neurogenesis is possible in the stomach as well.
How Your Gut Influences Your Mental Health: It’s Practically a Second Brain | Dr. Emeran Mayer
That's what a new study, published in the journal, Gastroenterology, claims. A team of researchers from Columbia University Irving Medical Center writes that this new domain of medical knowledge might help to correct gut abnormalities, a growing problem around the world, especially in nations that heavily rely on processed foods. Lead author and pediatric gastroenterologist at Columbia, Kara Margolis says,
"Though it's been known for many years that neurogenesis occurs in certain parts of the brain, the idea that it occurs in the gut nervous system is relatively new."
The study verifies a claim that has been circulating for some time: depression is gut-related. By focusing on the brain it appears that psychiatrists have been missing an essential jigsaw piece for decades. The neurotransmitter, serotonin, is the target of anti-depression medication; SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) are the most prescribed class of pharmaceuticals for depression and anxiety. Their efficacy has long been debated, especially for long-term usage, which they were not designed for. That's likely because 95 percent of the body's serotonin is produced in the gut, not the brain. Emotions are not a "brain-only" phenomenon, but that's how the medicine has been distributed.
This is why such an emphasis is being placed on our microbiome. As Emeran Mayer writes in The Mind-Gut Connection, serotonin affects not only intestinal functioning, but also sleep, pain sensitivity, mood, appetite, and well-being. He continues,
"Your gut microbes are in a prime position to influence your emotions, by generating and modulating signals the gut sends back to the brain."
In the Columbia study, Margolis and team focused on serotonin's role in constipation in mice. They noticed that shortages in the neurotransmitter lead to a dour mood. By raising serotonin levels in both gut and brain, their depression was alleviated.
Up to one-third of humans suffering from depression also have chronic constipation, a condition that leads to 2.5 million physician visits and 100,000 hospitalizations every year. Many antidepressant medications lead to constipation, creating a tragic feedback loop. The medicine makes the condition worse. The reduction of gut serotonin inspires enhanced emotional turmoil.
While this observation is clinically useful, the team also discovered a potential cure: slow-release 5-HTP. This precursor to serotonin is widely available as a supplement, though professionals have long warned about overdosing and side effects; for one, it is a popular recovery tool for MDMA users. Nootropic advocates also include 5-HTP in their "optimization" strategies. Yet dosage matters. Just as multivitamins dump a lot of vitamins into your gut without regard for what you might actually be deficient in, getting serotonin levels wrong has consequences.
Margolis notes that supplements approved for sale are immediate-release, too short-acting to be effective in treating depression. Serotonin produced by this method is quickly inactivated. Dialing in the proper dose for a slow-release formula in the treatment of constipation and depression will take a bit of time. More research, including human trials, will be necessary. But the wait could be worth it.
"The idea that we may be able to use slow-release 5-HTP to treat conditions that require the development of new neurons in the gut may open a whole new avenue of treatment."
There is an easier way to tackle this problem now: eat the right foods. Sometimes old folk wisdom is the best medication. That said, the fact that the gut-brain connection is becoming popular science represents an important step forward in battling obesity and depression. We're ready for medicine to take another leap forward.
- Your Diet Might Be Causing Anxiety and Depression - Big Think ›
- Depression study: avoid television and daytime napping - Big Think ›
- Depression study: avoid television and daytime napping - Big Think ›
A Mercury-bound spacecraft's noisy flyby of our home planet.
- There is no sound in space, but if there was, this is what it might sound like passing by Earth.
- A spacecraft bound for Mercury recorded data while swinging around our planet, and that data was converted into sound.
- Yes, in space no one can hear you scream, but this is still some chill stuff.
First off, let's be clear what we mean by "hear" here. (Here, here!)
Sound, as we know it, requires air. What our ears capture is actually oscillating waves of fluctuating air pressure. Cilia, fibers in our ears, respond to these fluctuations by firing off corresponding clusters of tones at different pitches to our brains. This is what we perceive as sound.
All of which is to say, sound requires air, and space is notoriously void of that. So, in terms of human-perceivable sound, it's silent out there. Nonetheless, there can be cyclical events in space — such as oscillating values in streams of captured data — that can be mapped to pitches, and thus made audible.
Image source: European Space Agency
The European Space Agency's BepiColombo spacecraft took off from Kourou, French Guyana on October 20, 2019, on its way to Mercury. To reduce its speed for the proper trajectory to Mercury, BepiColombo executed a "gravity-assist flyby," slinging itself around the Earth before leaving home. Over the course of its 34-minute flyby, its two data recorders captured five data sets that Italy's National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) enhanced and converted into sound waves.
Into and out of Earth's shadow
In April, BepiColombo began its closest approach to Earth, ranging from 256,393 kilometers (159,315 miles) to 129,488 kilometers (80,460 miles) away. The audio above starts as BepiColombo begins to sneak into the Earth's shadow facing away from the sun.
The data was captured by BepiColombo's Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) instrument. Says Carmelo Magnafico of the ISA team, "When the spacecraft enters the shadow and the force of the Sun disappears, we can hear a slight vibration. The solar panels, previously flexed by the Sun, then find a new balance. Upon exiting the shadow, we can hear the effect again."
In addition to making for some cool sounds, the phenomenon allowed the ISA team to confirm just how sensitive their instrument is. "This is an extraordinary situation," says Carmelo. "Since we started the cruise, we have only been in direct sunshine, so we did not have the possibility to check effectively whether our instrument is measuring the variations of the force of the sunlight."
When the craft arrives at Mercury, the ISA will be tasked with studying the planets gravity.
The second clip is derived from data captured by BepiColombo's MPO-MAG magnetometer, AKA MERMAG, as the craft traveled through Earth's magnetosphere, the area surrounding the planet that's determined by the its magnetic field.
BepiColombo eventually entered the hellish mangentosheath, the region battered by cosmic plasma from the sun before the craft passed into the relatively peaceful magentopause that marks the transition between the magnetosphere and Earth's own magnetic field.
MERMAG will map Mercury's magnetosphere, as well as the magnetic state of the planet's interior. As a secondary objective, it will assess the interaction of the solar wind, Mercury's magnetic field, and the planet, analyzing the dynamics of the magnetosphere and its interaction with Mercury.
Recording session over, BepiColombo is now slipping through space silently with its arrival at Mercury planned for 2025.
Research suggests that aging affects a brain circuit critical for learning and decision-making.
As people age, they often lose their motivation to learn new things or engage in everyday activities. In a study of mice, MIT neuroscientists have now identified a brain circuit that is critical for maintaining this kind of motivation.
Researchers find a key clue to the evolution of bony fish and tetrapods.
- A new study says solar and lunar tide impacts led to the evolution of bony fish and tetrapods.
- The scientists show that tides created tidal pools, stranding fish and forcing them to get out of the water.
- The researchers ran computer simulations to get their results.
Neil deGrasse Tyson Explains the Tides<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9913a65f847775722d7c23d40d78938b"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/dBwNadry-TU?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
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