What happened before the beginning of time is—by definition, it might be thought—metaphysics. At least one physicist, though, thinks there is nothing meta about the question at all. Roger Penrose, of Oxford University, believes that the Big Bang in which the visible universe began was not actually the beginning of everything. It was merely the latest example of a series of such bangs that renew reality when it is getting tired out. More importantly, he thinks that the pre-Big Bang past has left an imprint on the present that can be detected and analysed, and that he and a colleague in Armenia have found it.
Compared to people who took a placebo, the brains of those who took caffeine pills had a temporarily smaller gray matter volume.
“It is more human to laugh at life than to lament it.”
Out of sight, but not out of mind.
Entrenched business wisdom says that community-led economic systems are pure fantasy. Douglas Rushkoff disagrees.