from the world's big
7 amazing inventions discovered by mistake
- Some of these things have been around for nearly 200 years.
- All were "discovered" by accident.
- The term "Eureka!" actually became the state motto of California during the gold rush.
There are times when a researcher, scientist, or just a common, everyday tinkerer accidentally makes something that wasn't quite what she or he had in mind, but ends up leading to an invention that becomes ubiquitous across the world.
Here are seven "fortunate accidents" in science and the iconic items that came out because of them:
1. The Pacemaker
An artificial pacemaker (serial number 1723182) from St. Jude Medical, with electrode. Image source: Wikimedia Commons
"I'm beginning to think I may not change the world, but I'm still trying," Wilson Greatbatch, Inventor, 2007.
In fact, Mr. Greatbatch had indeed changed the world, after having invented a device by mistake that would save the lives of millions of people.
He'd been working on a device to record the rhythm of a human heartbeat. In 1956, as he was trying to finish the circuit where he worked at the University of Buffalo as an assistant professor, he accidentally grabbed the wrong sized resistor and used it instead. This was one of those "fortuitous" accidents, as it turned out. The intermittent electrical impulses that the device created because of that final resistor were very much like the sounds of a human heartbeat.
Seeing the value of such a device, he immediately set to work trying to make it small enough to fit inside a human. There were other research labs doing the same, so he worked urgently to get it done — documented in the book he wrote about the experience, The Making of the Pacemaker. His 2-inch device was debuted in testing on dogs in 1958 at the Buffalo Veterans Administration, and eventually, his device was licensed by Medtronic, and the rest, as they say, is history.
Greatbatch, seeing the biggest limitation of his pacemaker device hinge on the 2-year battery life, later acquired the rights to a lithium iodide battery, which would make his design last 10 years or more, and he redesigned it — the original version was potentially "explosive" — and later, his redesigned battery was adapted in countless medical devices, and still is.
2. Corn Flakes
Close-up, Corn Flakes cereal. Image source: Flickr user Marko Verch
The Kellogg brothers — John and Will — both worked in a Battle Creek, Michigan, sanitarium (what they used to call long-term care). In fact, John was physician-in-chief.
Their religion, Seventh-Day Adventist, preached vegetarianism and avoidance of alcohol as central concepts; as such, the Kellogg brothers sought to find ways to help patients through nutrition.
That's why they had some dough on hand one day, made up of whole wheat, and accidentally let it dry too much. When that dried mixture was in the process of being flattened, it separated into pieces, or flakes. Like they always did with their doughs and bread mixtures, they heated that in an oven to see what would happen.
A few years later, the base was changed to corn from wheat, and Corn Flakes were born.
3. Microwave Ovens
Man in wheelchair preparing to use microwave. Image source: PublicDomainFiles.com
Since they were accidentally invented in about 1945 these devices have changed the way we live.
(Flashback to my college days... after chugging down too many beers at the local bar where bodies were squeezed into tiny spaces and conversations were always shouted into ears, we'd always hit the 7-Eleven and get cheaply-made microwaved burritos. They didn't suck. Good times.)
But I digress.
Percy L. Spencer, widely known as an electronics genius after his stint in the Navy in WWI, was working for Raytheon in 1939, and his ideas and knowledge about radar helped the company win a government contract to develop the new technology and deploy it as "combat radar." Especially as WWII was on the horizon, this was actually the second highest priority project for the military only after the Manhattan Project.
Radar arrays use magnetrons — invisible, super-energetic, short-wavelength radio waves that travel at the speed of light — to function, and while testing radar equipment that had such, Spencer felt a strange sensation in his pants.
Specifically, a chocolate bar had melted when exposed to the waves created. He tested other foods, and when he discovered that the waves could pop popcorn all on their own, that was it.
Being the smart man he was, he quickly figured out how to create, patent, and then bring to market his invention. They began life as very large and costly devices, only being used on ships, trains, and in some restaurants; it wasn't until 1967 that the first commercial microwave was made successfully for home use.
The rest is... convenient and delicious.
4. Recreational LSD — Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Alice In Wonderland, tripping heavily.
From Dazed.com, "Your Guide To A Safe Acid Trip"
On November 16, 1938, Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann was attempting to create an analeptic compound to help people coming out of anesthesia, which also could potentially help premature infants keep breathing properly.
To get there, he attempted to combine the stimulant diethylamide with lysergic acid. Having failed, the experiment was set aside for 5 years.
The next time he returned to it on April 16, 1943. After creating the combination of the two, he accidentally ingested some, probably from a careless fingertip. He described the resultant sensations as being in his journal:
"... affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away."
Three days later, he dosed himself for an experiment with 250 micrograms of the material, in what forever will be known as Bicycle Day because the trip began while he was riding a bike home. He then freaked out, thought he was dying, summoned a doctor — who, shaking his head after hearing what he'd done, told him he couldn't help him — and then Hofmann finally settled in for a really pleasant trip and felt wonderful the next day. Also from his journal:
"I could begin to enjoy the unprecedented colors and plays of shapes that persisted behind my closed eyes. Kaleidoscopic, fantastic images surged in on me, alternating, variegated, opening and then closing themselves in circles and spirals, exploding in colored fountains, rearranging and hybridizing themselves in constant flux. It was particularly remarkable how every acoustic perception, such as the sound of a door handle or a passing automobile, became transformed into optical perceptions. Every sound generated a vividly changing image, with its own consistent form and color."
Helmet that saved an officer involved in the Pulse nightclub shooting, Orlando FL, 2016. Image source: Wikimedia Commons
Up until the fairly recent past, many inventions — both accidental and purposeful — created by women were stolen. That, or the role women played in the thing's creation was downplayed into oblivion.
Not so with Stephanie Kwolek, a chemist at DuPont. In 1965, after being asked by DuPont to create the "next generation" of fibers, she began attempting to create a material that would form stronger, lighter tires for use on vehicles.
She came across something that was lightweight, yet 5 times the strength of steel, and eventually, went on to create Kevlar.
The fibers have saved countless lives since then, in law enforcement, the military, and other places. And variations of it have gone on to be used for suspension bridges, to surround the underground fiber optic internet cables that connect the world, and so many other innovative projects.
Women in Chemistry: Stephanie Kwolek
Penicillin chemical illustration
Life before penicillin was much more brutal, deadly, and painful. Everything from pneumonia to rheumatic fever to gonorrhea all the way to blood infections and simple cuts that would lead to gangrene.
In 1928, penicillin was discovered — by Sir Alexander Fleming, a chemist and inventor who was, ironically, trying to create a miracle drug. The petri dish that the first discovered penicillin mold grew in was in a dish that had been left uncovered after other experiments had taken place using Staphylococcus aureus bacterium.
What he found was a ring of mold growth that had apparently killed the staph bacterium. Isolating the new discovery, however, and producing it in mass quantities, took until 1939, just before World War II.
7. Potato Chips
The box that eventually became standard. From OriginalSaratogaChips.com
There are a few different accounts of how potato chips were invented. There are even references to similar edible delights in cookbooks going back to the early 1800s.
But they became popular in upstate New York, near a town called Saratoga Springs, beginning in 1853.
A famous cook at Moons Lake House, George Speck, eventually to be known as George Crum, is said to have invented them one evening when a wealthy patron sent back the mushy slices of potatoes that he first made in exchange for something thinner cut. When the patron sent them back again, Crum sliced them incredibly thin and then fried them in oil and sprinkled salt on them afterward.
The gentleman love them and ordered more. Seven years later, "Saratoga Chips" were all the rage at both that restaurant and the new restaurant that George Crum founded, appropriately named Crums. He would serve them in boxes, and allow guests to take them homes as well.
George's sister, Katie Wicks, claimed after he passed that she was the one that invented them, from accidentally knocking a thin slice of potato into the deep fryer and then trying it out.
Whichever you believe, this accidental invention soon became the top-selling snack of all time across the United States.
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Higher education faces challenges that are unlike any other industry. What path will ASU, and universities like ASU, take in a post-COVID world?
- Everywhere you turn, the idea that coronavirus has brought on a "new normal" is present and true. But for higher education, COVID-19 exposes a long list of pernicious old problems more than it presents new problems.
- It was widely known, yet ignored, that digital instruction must be embraced. When combined with traditional, in-person teaching, it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale.
- COVID-19 has forced institutions to understand that far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted.
What conditions of the new normal were already appreciated widely?<p>First, we understand that higher education is unique among industries. Some industries are governed by markets. Others are run by governments. Most operate under the influence of both markets and governments. And then there's higher education. Higher education as an "industry" involves public, private, and for-profit universities operating at small, medium, large, and now massive scales. Some higher education industry actors are intense specialists; others are adept generalists. Some are fantastically wealthy; others are tragically poor. Some are embedded in large cities; others are carefully situated near farms and frontiers.</p> <p>These differences demonstrate just some of the complexities that shape higher education. Still, we understand that change in the industry is underway, and we must be active in directing it. Yet because of higher education's unique (and sometimes vexing) operational and structural conditions, many of the lessons from change management and the science of industrial transformation are only applicable in limited or highly modified ways. For evidence of this, one can look at various perspectives, including those that we have offered, on such topics as <a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/blogs/rethinking-higher-education/lessons-disruption" target="_blank">disruption</a>, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/20/education/learning/education-technology.html" target="_blank">technology management</a>, and so-called "<a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/media/Excerpt_IHESpecialReport_Growing-Role-of-Mergers-in-Higher-Ed.pdf" target="_blank">mergers and acquisitions</a>" in higher education. In each of these spaces, the "market forces" and "market rules" for higher education are different than they are in business, or even in government. This has always been the case and it is made more obvious by COVID-19.</p> <p>Second, with so much excitement about innovation in higher education, we sometimes lose sight of the fact that students are—and should remain—the core cause for innovation. Higher education's capacity to absorb new ideas is strong. But the ideas that endure are those designed to benefit students, and therefore society. This is important to remember because not all innovations are designed with students in mind. The recent history of innovation in higher education includes several cautionary tales of what can happen when institutional interests—or worse, <a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/02/09/apollos-new-owners-seek-fresh-start-beleaguered-company" target="_blank">shareholder</a> interests—are placed above student well-being.</p>
Photo: Getty Images<p>Third, it is abundantly apparent that universities must leverage technology to increase educational quality and access. The rapid shift to delivering an education that complies with social distancing guidelines speaks volumes about the adaptability of higher education institutions, but this transition has also posed unique difficulties for colleges and universities that had been slow to adopt digital education. The last decade has shown that online education, implemented effectively, can meet or even surpass the quality of in-person <a href="https://link-springer-com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/article/10.1007/s10639-019-10027-z" target="_blank">instruction</a>.</p><p>Digital instruction, broadly defined, leverages online capabilities and integrates adaptive learning methodologies, predictive analytics, and innovations in instructional design to enable increased student engagement, personalized learning experiences, and improved learning outcomes. The ability of these technologies to transcend geographic barriers and to shrink the marginal cost of educating additional students makes them essential for delivering education at scale.</p><p>As a bonus, and it is no small thing given that they are the core cause for innovation, students embrace and enjoy digital instruction. It is their preference to learn in a format that leverages technology. This should not be a surprise; it is now how we live in all facets of life.</p><p>Still, we have only barely begun to conceive of the impact digital education will have. For example, emerging virtual and augmented reality technologies that facilitate interactive, hands-on learning will transform the way that learners acquire and apply new knowledge. Technology-enabled learning cannot replace the traditional college experience or ensure the survival of any specific college, but it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale. This has always been the case, and it is made more obvious by COVID-19.</p>
What conditions of the new normal were emerging suspicions?<p>Our collective thinking about the role of institutional or university-to-university collaboration and networking has benefitted from a new clarity in light of COVID-19. We now recognize more than ever that colleges and universities must work together to ensure that the American higher education system is resilient and sufficiently robust to meet the needs of students and their families.</p> <p>In recent weeks, various commentators have suggested that higher education will face a wave of institutional <a href="https://www.businessinsider.com/scott-galloway-predicts-colleges-will-close-due-to-pandemic-2020-5" target="_blank">closures</a> and consolidations and that large institutions with significant online instruction capacity will become dominant.</p> <p>While ASU is the largest public university in the United States by enrollment and among the most well-equipped in online education, we strongly oppose "let them fail" mindsets. The strength of American higher education relies on its institutional diversity, and on the ability of colleges and universities to meet the needs of their local communities and educate local students. The needs of learners are highly individualized, demanding a wide range of options to accommodate the aspirations and learning styles of every kind of student. Education will become less relevant and meaningful to students, and less responsive to local needs, if institutions of higher learning are allowed to fail. </p> <p>Preventing this outcome demands that colleges and universities work together to establish greater capacity for remote, distributed education. This will help institutions with fewer resources adapt to our new normal and continue to fulfill their mission of serving students, their families, and their communities. Many had suspected that collaboration and networking were preferable over letting vulnerable colleges fail. COVID-19's new normal seems to be confirming this.</p>
President Barack Obama delivers the commencement address during the Arizona State University graduation ceremony at Sun Devil Stadium May 13, 2009 in Tempe, Arizona. Over 65,000 people attended the graduation.
Photo by Joshua Lott/Getty Images<p>A second condition of the new normal that many had suspected to be true in recent years is the limited role that any one university or type of university can play as an exemplar to universities more broadly. For decades, the evolution of higher education has been shaped by the widespread imitation of a small number of elite universities. Most public research universities could benefit from replicating Berkeley or Michigan. Most small private colleges did well by replicating Williams or Swarthmore. And all universities paid close attention to Harvard, Princeton, MIT, Stanford, and Yale. It is not an exaggeration to say that the logic of replication has guided the evolution of higher education for centuries, both in the US and abroad.</p><p>Only recently have we been able to move beyond replication to new strategies of change, and COVID-19 has confirmed the legitimacy of doing so. For example, cases such as <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2020/03/10/harvard-moves-classes-online-advises-students-stay-home-after-spring-break-response-covid-19/" target="_blank">Harvard's</a> eviction of students over the course of less than one week or <a href="https://www.nhregister.com/news/coronavirus/article/Mayor-New-Haven-asks-for-coronavirus-help-Yale-15162606.php" target="_blank">Yale's apparent reluctance</a> to work with the city of New Haven, highlight that even higher education's legacy gold standards have limits and weaknesses. We are hopeful that the new normal will include a more active and earnest recognition that we need many types of universities. We think the new normal invites us to rethink the very nature of "gold standards" for higher education.</p>
A graduate student protests MIT's rejection of some evacuation exemption requests.
Photo: Maddie Meyer/Getty Images<p>Finally, and perhaps most importantly, we had started to suspect and now understand that America's colleges and universities are among the many institutions of democracy and civil society that are, by their very design, incapable of being sufficiently responsive to the full spectrum of modern challenges and opportunities they face. Far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted. And without new designs, we can expect postsecondary success for these same students to be as elusive in the new normal, as it was in the <a href="http://pellinstitute.org/indicators/reports_2019.shtml" target="_blank">old normal</a>. This is not just because some universities fail to sufficiently recognize and engage the promise of diversity, this is because few universities have been designed from the outset to effectively serve the unique needs of lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color.</p>
Where can the new normal take us?<p>As colleges and universities face the difficult realities of adapting to COVID-19, they also face an opportunity to rethink their operations and designs in order to respond to social needs with greater agility, adopt technology that enables education to be delivered at scale, and collaborate with each other in order to maintain the dynamism and resilience of the American higher education system.</p> <p>COVID-19 raises questions about the relevance, the quality, and the accessibility of higher education—and these are the same challenges higher education has been grappling with for years. </p> <p>ASU has been able to rapidly adapt to the present circumstances because we have spent nearly two decades not just anticipating but <em>driving</em> innovation in higher education. We have adopted a <a href="https://www.asu.edu/about/charter-mission-and-values" target="_blank">charter</a> that formalizes our definition of success in terms of "who we include and how they succeed" rather than "<a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2019/10/17/forget-varsity-blues-madness-lets-talk-about-students-who-cant-afford-college/" target="_blank">who we exclude</a>." We adopted an entrepreneurial <a href="https://president.asu.edu/read/higher-logic" target="_blank">operating model</a> that moves at the speed of technological and social change. We have launched initiatives such as <a href="https://www.instride.com/how-it-works/" target="_blank">InStride</a>, a platform for delivering continuing education to learners already in the workforce. We developed our own robust technological capabilities in ASU <a href="https://edplus.asu.edu/" target="_blank">EdPlus</a>, a hub for research and development in digital learning that, even before the current crisis, allowed us to serve more than 45,000 fully online students. We have also created partnerships with other forward-thinking institutions in order to mutually strengthen our capabilities for educational accessibility and quality; this includes our role in co-founding the <a href="https://theuia.org/" target="_blank">University Innovation Alliance</a>, a consortium of 11 public research universities that share data and resources to serve students at scale. </p> <p>For ASU, and universities like ASU, the "new normal" of a post-COVID world looks surprisingly like the world we already knew was necessary. Our record breaking summer 2020 <a href="https://asunow.asu.edu/20200519-sun-devil-life-summer-enrollment-sets-asu-record" target="_blank">enrollment</a> speaks to this. What COVID demonstrates is that we were already headed in the right direction and necessitates that we continue forward with new intensity and, we hope, with more partners. In fact, rather than "new normal" we might just say, it's "go time." </p>
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