Scientists Introduce 20 Million Sterile Mosquitoes into California
20 million ready-but-sterile male mosquitoes are being released in California to reduce local populations.
Whatever their role in the ecosystem may be, the Aedes aegypti mosquito is downright dangerous to humans, its bite being the vector for dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Loathe as we may be to mess with nature, these bugs are unquestionably — if unintentionally — messing with us. Now Verily, Alphabet’s life sciences division, MosquitoMate, and the Consolidated Mosquito Abatement program of Fresno, CA, are partnering in the Debug Fresno pilot program to reduce the city’s population of Aedes aegypti.
The Debug project began in July 0f 2017 with the release of a million male Aedes aegypti carrying a bacteria, Wolbachia, that causes sterility in female Aedes aegypti. The releases will continue for 20 weeks, until 20 million males have joined the Fresno mosquito population. (As of this writing they’re almost halfway through.) Locals will see a short-term increase in the mosquito population, but males mosquitoes don’t bite. And, while upsetting an existing ecosystem is always a concern, the Debug team notes that Aedes aegypti are an invasive species in the area, and thus, reducing their numbers is not expected to cause any problems for local bats, bees, or birds.
(CONSOLIDATED MOSQUITO ABATEMENT DISTRICT)
The project is using MosquitoMate’s “sterile insect technique,” a method of insect population control that doesn’t involve the use of insecticides. Instead, male mosquitoes that have Wolbachia are introduced into a population where they eagerly mate with wild females — what happens, though, is that the resulting eggs never hatch due to a cytoplasmic incompatibility with Wolbachia. This quickly reduces the size of the next mosquito generation, and thus their population overall. The males haven’t been genetically modified in any way, nor have their Wolbachia bacteria.
Wolbachia is an extremely common bacteria in the insect world, estimated to occur in around half of all species. (It can’t be transmitted to warm-blooded animals like us.) Male mosquitoes make an exceptionally good tool for population control, of course, because first of all, they don’t bite, so they can be introduced into an area without bothering people or other animals. And second, nothing is better at finding female mosquitoes than male mosquitoes.
MosquitoMate has held successful trials of their sterile insect technique in Kentucky and New York, and elsewhere in California, achieving an over 80% reduction in mosquito populations.
Green dots show where Wolbachia is being tested with Aedes aegypti (MOSQUITOMATE)
Verily’s role in the project involves leveraging the cutting-edge tech at their disposal as a branch of Alphabet, formerly Google. The Debug website explains, “Our team is developing new technologies that combine sensors, algorithms and novel engineering to raise millions of these sterile mosquitoes and quickly and accurately sort them for release in the wild.” In addition, Verily is also “building software and monitoring tools to guide mosquito releases and new sensors, traps and software to better determine which areas need to be treated and re-treated.”
Fresno became interested in the project after Aedes aegypti arrived in nearby Clovis in 2013. The effect was immediate, with a noticeable increase in bites from this invasive, aggressive strain. The Aedes aegypti currently in California aren’t carrying any of the diseases they’re capable of carrying, but the community decided to try and get ahead of the problem.
(CONSOLIDATED MOSQUITO ABATEMENT DISTRICT)
Ready your Schrödinger's Cat Jokes.
- For a time, quantum computing was more theory than fact.
- That's starting to change.
- New quantum computer designs look like they might be scalable.
Quantum computing has existed in theory since the 1980's. It's slowly making its way into fact, the latest of which can be seen in a paper published in Nature called, "Deterministic teleportation of a quantum gate between two logical qubits."
To ensure that we're all familiar with a few basic terms: in electronics, a 'logic gate' is something that takes in one or more than one binary inputs and produces a single binary output. To put it in reductive terms: if you produce information that goes into a chip in your computer as a '0,' the logic gate is what sends it out the other side as a '1.'
A quantum gate means that the '1' in question here can — roughly speaking — go back through the gate and become a '0' once again. But that's not quite the whole of it.
A qubit is a single unit of quantum information. To continue with our simple analogy: you don't have to think about computers producing a string of information that is either a zero or a one. A quantum computer can do both, simultaneously. But that can only happen if you build a functional quantum gate.
That's why the results of the study from the folks at The Yale Quantum Institute saying that they were able to create a quantum gate with a "process fidelity" of 79% is so striking. It could very well spell the beginning of the pathway towards realistic quantum computing.
The team went about doing this through using a superconducting microwave cavity to create a data qubit — that is, they used a device that operates a bit like a organ pipe or a music box but for microwave frequencies. They paired that data qubit with a transmon — that is, a superconducting qubit that isn't as sensitive to quantum noise as it otherwise could be, which is a good thing, because noise can destroy information stored in a quantum state. The two are then connected through a process called a 'quantum bus.'
That process translates into a quantum property being able to be sent from one location to the other without any interaction between the two through something called a teleported CNOT gate, which is the 'official' name for a quantum gate. Single qubits made the leap from one side of the gate to the other with a high degree of accuracy.
Above: encoded qubits and 'CNOT Truth table,' i.e., the read-out.
The team then entangled these bits of information as a way of further proving that they were literally transporting the qubit from one place to somewhere else. They then analyzed the space between the quantum points to determine that something that doesn't follow the classical definition of physics occurred.
They conclude by noting that "... the teleported gate … uses relatively modest elements, all of which are part of the standard toolbox for quantum computation in general. Therefore ... progress to improve any of the elements will directly increase gate performance."
In other words: they did something simple and did it well. And that the only forward here is up. And down. At the same time.
These modern-day hermits can sometimes spend decades without ever leaving their apartments.
- A hikikomori is a type of person in Japan who locks themselves away in their bedrooms, sometimes for years.
- This is a relatively new phenomenon in Japan, likely due to rigid social customs and high expectations for academic and business success.
- Many believe hikikomori to be a result of how Japan interprets and handles mental health issues.
How a cataclysm worse than what killed the dinosaurs destroyed 90 percent of all life on Earth.
While the demise of the dinosaurs gets more attention as far as mass extinctions go, an even more disastrous event called "the Great Dying” or the “End-Permian Extinction” happened on Earth prior to that. Now scientists discovered how this cataclysm, which took place about 250 million years ago, managed to kill off more than 90 percent of all life on the planet.
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