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Bitcoin burglaries: The 5 biggest cryptocurrency heists in history
At the beginning of July 2018, blockchain security firm CipherTrace reported that $731 million has been stolen from crypto exchanges this year alone.
As the popularity of cryptocurrencies continues to soar, so does the number of hackers targeting exchanges. In 2017, crypto exchanges reported losing approximately $266 million as a result of security breaches and heists. However, the first half of 2018 alone has reported that triple this amount has been stolen from crypto exchanges already.
“With each passing crypto hack, there’s more at stake. These heists aren’t just becoming more common. They’re becoming significantly more valuable.”
In this article, we’ll take a look at some of the most prolific crypto heists in history.
The Coincheck heist
In January 2018, hackers found a loophole in the Coincheck exchange that allowed them to steal over 500 million NEM. This was worth around $530 million at the time. While only the NEM was breached and other funds remained secure, NEM Foundation has stressed that the hack was nothing to do with the security of the XEM cryptocurrency.
They have insisted that the blame is entirely on Coincheck, saying that it was a result of its ‘relaxed security measures’. Because such a significant percentage of XEM was compromised, many people immediately assumed that NEM would carry out a hard fork in order to recover the funds. However, this did not occur. Coincheck now has the reputation of being the victim of the biggest crypto exchange hack in history.
The Mt. Gox hack
Up until the recent Coincheck hack, the Mt. Gox Hack was the biggest crypto heist in history. It still remains the biggest Bitcoin heist to have ever occurred.
Mt. Gox was a crypto exchange based in Tokyo, Japan. Between 2013 and 2014, it handled over 70% of all worldwide Bitcoin transactions. Unfortunately, by February 2014, the exchange had declared bankruptcy.
The hacker stole approximately 850,000 Bitcoins - worth around $450 million at the time. What’s more, this was approximately 6% of all Bitcoin in existence at the time. Therefore, at the time of the theft, this was a significant percentage of the total crypto market cap. In that sense, this was even bigger than the Coincheck hack. 200,000 of the stolen Bitcoins were eventually recovered. However, approximately 650,000 remain lost forever.
Founder of Ethereum Vitalik Buterin during TechCrunch Disrupt London 2015. Photo by John Phillips/Getty Images for TechCrunch.
The DAO attack that led to the creation of Ethereum Classic (ETC)
A ‘DAO’ is a Decentralized Autonomous Organization that aims to eliminate the requirement for third-parties in governing and to ultimately create a structure that has decentralized control. It does this by turning the rules and decision-making apparatus of an organization into code.
‘The DAO’ was the name of a particular DAO. It was launched on the 30th April 2016 and had a 28-day funding window. It was extremely popular - so much so that by the end of its funding period, it was the largest crowdfunded organization in history.
Throughout the crowdsale, several people expressed concerns about The DAO’s security and suggested that it could be vulnerable to attack. Despite this, it went on to raise over $150 million from 11,000 members - far more than its creators had ever imagined.
On June 12th, 2016, Stephen Tual, one of the creators of The DAO, announced that a "recursive call" bug had been found in the code. However, at the end of his post, stressed that "this is NOT an issue that is putting any DAO funds at risk today." Unfortunately, Tual turned out to be very wrong. By the time the team had identified the bug and begun to fix it, a hacker was already exploiting it and draining The DAO of the ether it had collected from its token sales.
By the 18th of June, less than a week after the announcement had been made, the hacker had already managed to drain over 3.6 million ether (worth approximately $70 million) into a “child DAO”. This alone led the price of Ether to fall drastically from $20 to $13.
As a result of this catastrophe, an Ethereum hard-fork was proposed, with 89% of Ether holders voting in favor of it. This led to the creation of Ethereum Classic (ETC) - a new cryptocurrency which shares the data on the Ethereum blockchain up until block 1920000.
The Bitfinex exchange heist
Bitfinex is currently ranked as the second largest crypto exchange in terms of daily trading volumes. However, in August 2016, the exchange suffered a hacking heist that resulted in the loss of over 120,000 Bitcoins, worth around $66 million. Within hours of the attack, the value of Bitcoin had dropped from over $600 to $540. Moreover, the users never received compensation for their lost Bitcoins. Instead, the exchange paid users in BFX tokens for their losses and promised to buy these tokens back at a later date.
The platform experienced another cyber attack in June 2018. However, this attack only affected trading operations. Thankfully, no user accounts were compromised.
The BitFloor exchange heist
Despite being relatively unknown, the BitFloor heist remains one of the biggest Bitcoin heists in history. It resulted in the loss of over 24,000 Bitcoins. At the time it was considered relatively small. However, in today’s terms, the hack would be worth a surplus of $141 million.
Back in 2012, BitFloor was one of the largest competitors of Mt. Gox. However, it had to shut down abruptly when hackers gained access to the private keys of users. This was made possible because the hackers were able to gain access to the users’ private keys, which were stored in an extremely insecure manner in an unencrypted state, online, for backups.
Luckily, the exchange was able to refund users for their losses. However, it was ultimately forced to shut down.
What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
With just a few strategical tweaks, the Nazis could have won one of World War II's most decisive battles.
- The Battle of Britain is widely recognized as one of the most significant battles that occurred during World War II. It marked the first major victory of the Allied forces and shifted the tide of the war.
- Historians, however, have long debated the deciding factor in the British victory and German defeat.
- A new mathematical model took into account numerous alternative tactics that the German's could have made and found that just two tweaks stood between them and victory over Britain.
Two strategic blunders<p>Now, historians and mathematicians from York St. John University have collaborated to produce <a href="http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~nm15/bootstrapBoB%20AAMS.docx" target="_blank">a statistical model (docx download)</a> capable of calculating what the likely outcomes of the Battle of Britain would have been had the circumstances been different. </p><p>Would the German war effort have fared better had they not bombed Britain at all? What if Hitler had begun his bombing campaign earlier, even by just a few weeks? What if they had focused their targets on RAF airfields for the entire course of the battle? Using a statistical technique called weighted bootstrapping, the researchers studied these and other alternatives.</p><p>"The weighted bootstrap technique allowed us to model alternative campaigns in which the Luftwaffe prolongs or contracts the different phases of the battle and varies its targets," said co-author Dr. Jaime Wood in a <a href="https://www.york.ac.uk/news-and-events/news/2020/research/mathematicians-battle-britain-what-if-scenarios/" target="_blank">statement</a>. Based on the different strategic decisions that the German forces could have made, the researchers' model enabled them to predict the likelihood that the events of a given day of fighting would or would not occur.</p><p>"The Luftwaffe would only have been able to make the necessary bases in France available to launch an air attack on Britain in June at the earliest, so our alternative campaign brings forward the air campaign by three weeks," continued Wood. "We tested the impact of this and the other counterfactuals by varying the probabilities with which we choose individual days."</p><p>Ultimately, two strategic tweaks shifted the odds significantly towards the Germans' favor. Had the German forces started their campaign earlier in the year and had they consistently targeted RAF airfields, an Allied victory would have been extremely unlikely.</p><p>Say the odds of a British victory in the real-world Battle of Britain stood at 50-50 (there's no real way of knowing what the actual odds are, so we'll just have to select an arbitrary figure). If this were the case, changing the start date of the campaign and focusing only on airfields would have reduced British chances at victory to just 10 percent. Even if a British victory stood at 98 percent, these changes would have cut them down to just 34 percent.</p>
A tool for understanding history<p>This technique, said co-author Niall Mackay, "demonstrates just how finely-balanced the outcomes of some of the biggest moments of history were. Even when we use the actual days' events of the battle, make a small change of timing or emphasis to the arrangement of those days and things might have turned out very differently."</p><p>The researchers also claimed that their technique could be applied to other uncertain historical events. "Weighted bootstrapping can provide a natural and intuitive tool for historians to investigate unrealized possibilities, informing historical controversies and debates," said Mackay.</p><p>Using this technique, researchers can evaluate other what-ifs and gain insight into how differently influential events could have turned out if only the slightest things had changed. For now, at least, we can all be thankful that Hitler underestimated Britain's grit.</p>
A new study shows our planet is much closer to the supermassive black hole at the galaxy's center than previously estimated.
Arrows on this map show position and velocity data for the 224 objects utilized to model the Milky Way Galaxy. The solid black lines point to the positions of the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Colors reflect groups of objects that are part of the same arm, while the background is a simulation image.
Apple sold its first iPod in 2001, and six years later it introduced the iPhone, which ushered in a new era of personal technology.