from the world's big
Divers discover world's largest underwater cave system filled with Mayan mysteries
Researchers in Mexico discover the longest underwater cave system in the world that's full of invaluable artifacts.
Mexican scientists discovered the world’s largest flooded cave system that extends an amazing 216 miles (347 km) and is filled with artifacts. The maze of caves is a major archaeological find that promises to shed light on the mysteries of the Mayan civilization.
Underwater archaeologist Guillermo de Anda of Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History led the Great Maya Aquifer Project (GAM), which has been exploring underwater caves on the Caribbean coastline of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico for decades. The region has 358 freshwater flooded cave systems that stretch for over 870 miles (1,400km).
De Anda explained that their accomplishment has wide-ranging significance:
"This immense cave represents the most important submerged archaeological site in the world," said de Anda. ”It has more than a hundred archaeological contexts, among which are evidence of the first settlers of America, as well as extinct fauna and, of course, the Maya culture."
The current research effort took 10 months and proved that two caves systems - the Sac Actun System and the Dos Ojos caves are actually part of one continuous and, certainly gigantic, cavity in the Earth.
Inside the cave system. Credit: GAM
GAM exploration director Robert Schmittner told the Mexican newspaper El Pais how the research team came close a number of times to proving the connection between the two giant cave systems.
"It was like trying to follow the veins within a body,” said Schmittner. “It was a labyrinth of paths that sometimes came together and sometimes separated. We had to be very careful."
Now that the researchers showed that the two cave mazes are linked, they think another three underwater cave systems can be added to what is already the longest cave labyrinth in the world.
Diver inside the underwater caves. Credit: GAM
The impressive caves present an invaluable scientific loot, with divers finding a large amount of Mayan artifacts like ceramics, remains (including those of early humans, giant sloths and tigers) and extinct fauna.
De Anda called the caves a ”tunnel of time that transports you to a place 10,000 to 12,000 years ago."
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.