Your Lifetime by the Numbers
A fascinating international study takes a look at what the average person does in a lifetime, broken down by days and percentages.
As you go through life, some days seem longer, some shorter, but altogether it's often hard to get a sense of what actually constitutes your life while you're living it. There are too many demands on your time, too many variables. Life just flows and flows, in a succession of days that seems endless until it isn't.
To gain an overarching perspective, a new study takes a look at the life of an average person in terms of pure numbers. Researchers surveyed over 9,000 people in 9 countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, France, Mexico, Russia, Korea and Spain. What they found out were some striking stats.
Taking the average life expectancy to be 25, 915 days (71 years), an average human would spend:
0.45% (or 117 days) having sex - given it's prominence in our everyday thinking and pursuits, that doesn't seem like such a great success rate.
On the other hand, humans spend 6.8% (or 1,769 days) of their lives socializing with someone they love. Germans apparently top this category at 10.48% (or 2,724 days). Spending 7-10% of our time engaged in some form of loving seems reassuring.
0.69% (or 180 days) of their life, people spend exercising, while 29.75% (7,709 days) sitting down, with the Russians sitting most of all at 32.9%. Maybe it's time we got up? A third of our life is just sitting somewhere and if you add to that all the time we are sleeping, it really seems like a giant waste.
Another sobering number is how much time we spend staring at some screen, be it a smartphone, tablet, laptop or TV. That's 41%! Again, Germans appear to do this the least, around 8,995 days, probably spending the extra time with the loved ones.
More interesting tidbits from the study:
Mexicans are most proud of their bodies (38.6%), average the longest before breaking a New Year's Resolution (3.6 months) and laugh on average 24 times per day (more than anyone). Perhaps, all these facts are related.
Americans challenge themselves to do something physically tough the most (9.84 times per month) and spend the most money on fitness at $16.05 per week. They are also the most adventurous, trying some new thing about 7 times per month.
Russians sleep the most per night (7 hours 5 minutes ) and also dance the most per month - about 15 times per month.
Here's a nice graphic putting some of these numbers in further perspective:
The study was conducted by Reebok in partnership with the global survey consultancy Censuswide. Sure, Reebok had its own commerical reasons for looking into these numbers, but the end results are fascinating, regardless of your interest in their shoes.
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Experts argue the jaws of an ancient European ape reveal a key human ancestor.
- The jaw bones of an 8-million-year-old ape were discovered at Nikiti, Greece, in the '90s.
- Researchers speculate it could be a previously unknown species and one of humanity's earliest evolutionary ancestors.
- These fossils may change how we view the evolution of our species.
Homo sapiens have been on earth for 200,000 years — give or take a few ten-thousand-year stretches. Much of that time is shrouded in the fog of prehistory. What we do know has been pieced together by deciphering the fossil record through the principles of evolutionary theory. Yet new discoveries contain the potential to refashion that knowledge and lead scientists to new, previously unconsidered conclusions.
A set of 8-million-year-old teeth may have done just that. Researchers recently inspected the upper and lower jaw of an ancient European ape. Their conclusions suggest that humanity's forebearers may have arisen in Europe before migrating to Africa, potentially upending a scientific consensus that has stood since Darwin's day.
Rethinking humanity's origin story
The frontispiece of Thomas Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (1863) sketched by natural history artist Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins. (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)
As reported in New Scientist, the 8- to 9-million-year-old hominin jaw bones were found at Nikiti, northern Greece, in the '90s. Scientists originally pegged the chompers as belonging to a member of Ouranopithecus, an genus of extinct Eurasian ape.
David Begun, an anthropologist at the University of Toronto, and his team recently reexamined the jaw bones. They argue that the original identification was incorrect. Based on the fossil's hominin-like canines and premolar roots, they identify that the ape belongs to a previously unknown proto-hominin.
The researchers hypothesize that these proto-hominins were the evolutionary ancestors of another European great ape Graecopithecus, which the same team tentatively identified as an early hominin in 2017. Graecopithecus lived in south-east Europe 7.2 million years ago. If the premise is correct, these hominins would have migrated to Africa 7 million years ago, after undergoing much of their evolutionary development in Europe.
Begun points out that south-east Europe was once occupied by the ancestors of animals like the giraffe and rhino, too. "It's widely agreed that this was the found fauna of most of what we see in Africa today," he told New Scientists. "If the antelopes and giraffes could get into Africa 7 million years ago, why not the apes?"
He recently outlined this idea at a conference of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
It's worth noting that Begun has made similar hypotheses before. Writing for the Journal of Human Evolution in 2002, Begun and Elmar Heizmann of the Natural history Museum of Stuttgart discussed a great ape fossil found in Germany that they argued could be the ancestor (broadly speaking) of all living great apes and humans.
"Found in Germany 20 years ago, this specimen is about 16.5 million years old, some 1.5 million years older than similar species from East Africa," Begun said in a statement then. "It suggests that the great ape and human lineage first appeared in Eurasia and not Africa."
Migrating out of Africa
In the Descent of Man, Charles Darwin proposed that hominins descended out of Africa. Considering the relatively few fossils available at the time, it is a testament to Darwin's astuteness that his hypothesis remains the leading theory.
Since Darwin's time, we have unearthed many more fossils and discovered new evidence in genetics. As such, our African-origin story has undergone many updates and revisions since 1871. Today, it has splintered into two theories: the "out of Africa" theory and the "multi-regional" theory.
The out of Africa theory suggests that the cradle of all humanity was Africa. Homo sapiens evolved exclusively and recently on that continent. At some point in prehistory, our ancestors migrated from Africa to Eurasia and replaced other subspecies of the genus Homo, such as Neanderthals. This is the dominant theory among scientists, and current evidence seems to support it best — though, say that in some circles and be prepared for a late-night debate that goes well past last call.
The multi-regional theory suggests that humans evolved in parallel across various regions. According to this model, the hominins Homo erectus left Africa to settle across Eurasia and (maybe) Australia. These disparate populations eventually evolved into modern humans thanks to a helping dollop of gene flow.
Of course, there are the broad strokes of very nuanced models, and we're leaving a lot of discussion out. There is, for example, a debate as to whether African Homo erectus fossils should be considered alongside Asian ones or should be labeled as a different subspecies, Homo ergaster.
Proponents of the out-of-Africa model aren't sure whether non-African humans descended from a single migration out of Africa or at least two major waves of migration followed by a lot of interbreeding.
Did we head east or south of Eden?
Not all anthropologists agree with Begun and his team's conclusions. As noted by New Scientist, it is possible that the Nikiti ape is not related to hominins at all. It may have evolved similar features independently, developing teeth to eat similar foods or chew in a similar manner as early hominins.
Ultimately, Nikiti ape alone doesn't offer enough evidence to upend the out of Africa model, which is supported by a more robust fossil record and DNA evidence. But additional evidence may be uncovered to lend further credence to Begun's hypothesis or lead us to yet unconsidered ideas about humanity's evolution.
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