Give Teens Over-the-Counter Birth Control Pills, Say Researchers
A new study from Johns Hopkins University supports making birth control pills available without a prescription.
A new study from John Hopkins University supports the case that women should be able to get birth control pills without having to get a prescription from a doctor. Researchers found that oral contraceptives can be safely sold over the counter to women of all ages.
A team of experts in pediatric, adolescent and women’s health reviewed years of data to come to their conclusion that the pill, already the most popular form of hormonal birth control in the U.S., should be available with even fewer restrictions. They called the need to get a prescription "a barrier to contraceptive initiation and continuation for women, in particular adolescents."
The study also pointed to the need to make it easier for teens to get contraceptives.
“Decades of research show that a majority of adolescents initiate sex before the age of 18 and that earlier use of contraception reduces the risk of teen pregnancy. Our review strongly suggests that giving teens easier access to various contraceptives will not lead to more sex but would result in fewer unwanted pregnancies,” said Professor and doctor Krishna Upadhya, the paper’s lead author.
In fact, the team thinks it might be easier for teens to be in a routine of taking contraceptives when the situation is removed from emotional and sexual pressures. Basically - on a cooler head.
“Oral contraceptives are popular, safe and effective methods of pregnancy prevention for women and teens. Our review emphasizes that any future over-the-counter pill has the potential to benefit teens, and there is no scientific rationale to restrict access based on age,” emphasized Upadhya.
The issue of whether women should have easier access to “the pill” is politicized and cause of medical debate. Some doctors believe that the pill can only be taken with medical supervision due to its potential health hazards. Religious groups are also against more access to contraceptives.
Others, like the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, officially endorse the idea. Changing the law on a federal level has proved elusive so proponents of allowing over-the-counter sale of contraceptives have focused on states. Measures that let people to see pharmacists instead of doctors to get contraceptives passed in Oregon and California.
You can read the study here, in the Journal of Adolescent Health.
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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