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Black stars, not just black holes, may be possible in our weird universe
New research predicts the existence of completely different kind of stars.
Groundbreaking research indicates that a totally new kind of star may exist in our wild Universe, one with characteristics between a neutron star and a black hole. One of its traits would be an ability to swallow light, but not forever - the light could theoretically escape.
A black hole is a superdense area in space with gravity so strong that it doesn’t allow light to get out. Such a “hole” can range from being super-tiny, no more than an atom in size, to “supermassive” which has a mass of more than one million of our suns taken together.
A neutron star is formed when a star collapses in a supernova which is not massive enough to produce a black hole. A neutron star could be as big as a city and is filled with, you guessed it, neutrons.
The new study, carried out by the Italian physicist Raúl Carballo-Rubio from the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), relied on mathematical calculations to show that another superdense kind of star structure may be possible. It has properties similar to previously-proposed black stars and gravastars, but now has the math to back it up.
«The novelty in this analysis is that, for the first time, all these ingredients have been assembled together in a fully consistent model,” said Carballo-Rubio in a press release. “Moreover, it has been shown that there exist new stellar configurations and that these can be described in a surprisingly simple manner».
Carballo-Rubio’s model combines the attractive principles of general relativity with the repulsive effect of quantum vacuum polarization - the concept that a vacuum isn’t really empty but contains quantum energy and particles. The physicist showed that there are certain mass thresholds that determine what happens at the end of a star’s life when it nears collapse. At some point, a star would form what looks like a black hole but acts very differently like a "semiclassical relativistic star.”
One big difference would be that such stars would not have event horizons, a feature shared with gravastars. There would be no “point of no return” for light or matter but the powerful gravitational fields of these stars would still warp light, reports Scientific American. Additionally, instead of having all mass concentrated in a central singularity, as shown by the work of Roger Penrose and the recently-departed Stephen Hawking, the mass would be distributed throughout this kind of star.
The existence of such a stellar object would also provide a solution to one nagging feature of the black hole theory - how can information (like light) be destroyed? That goes against the known laws of physics. If there was a black star, like the one described by Carballo-Rubio, it would work better with our existing framework.
Do these stars really exist? One possibility is that they do but not for long.
"It is not clear yet whether these configurations can be dynamically realised in astrophysical scenarios, or how long would they last if this is the case," said Carballo-Rubio.
He is hopeful, however, that if such “dense and ultracompact stars” do exist in the Universe, we should be able to detect them in the “next decades”.
You can read the new study in Physical Review Letters.
"Deepfakes" and "cheap fakes" are becoming strikingly convincing — even ones generated on freely available apps.
- A writer named Magdalene Visaggio recently used FaceApp and Airbrush to generate convincing portraits of early U.S. presidents.
- "Deepfake" technology has improved drastically in recent years, and some countries are already experiencing how it can weaponized for political purposes.
- It's currently unknown whether it'll be possible to develop technology that can quickly and accurately determine whether a given video is real or fake.
The future of deepfakes<p>In 2018, Gabon's president Ali Bongo had been out of the country for months receiving medical treatment. After Bongo hadn't been seen in public for months, rumors began swirling about his condition. Some suggested Bongo might even be dead. In response, Bongo's administration released a video that seemed to show the president addressing the nation.</p><p>But the <a href="https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=324528215059254" target="_blank">video</a> is strange, appearing choppy and blurry in parts. After political opponents declared the video to be a deepfake, Gabon's military attempted an unsuccessful coup. What's striking about the story is that, to this day, experts in the field of deepfakes can't conclusively verify whether the video was real. </p><p>The uncertainty and confusion generated by deepfakes poses a "global problem," according to a <a href="https://www.brookings.edu/research/is-seeing-still-believing-the-deepfake-challenge-to-truth-in-politics/#cancel" target="_blank">2020 report from The Brookings Institution</a>. In 2018, the U.S. Department of Defense released some of the first tools able to successfully detect deepfake videos. The problem, however, is that deepfake technology keeps improving, meaning forensic approaches may forever be one step behind the most sophisticated forms of deepfakes. </p><p>As the 2020 report noted, even if the private sector or governments create technology to identify deepfakes, they will:</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"...operate more slowly than the generation of these fakes, allowing false representations to dominate the media landscape for days or even weeks. "A lie can go halfway around the world before the truth can get its shoes on," warns David Doermann, the director of the Artificial Intelligence Institute at the University of Buffalo. And if defensive methods yield results short of certainty, as many will, technology companies will be hesitant to label the likely misrepresentations as fakes."</p>
Context is everything.
The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a number of new behaviours into daily routines, like physical distancing, mask-wearing and hand sanitizing. Meanwhile, many old behaviours such as attending events, eating out and seeing friends have been put on hold.
A new study looks at how images of coffee's origins affect the perception of its premiumness and quality.
- Images can affect how people perceive the quality of a product.
- In a new study, researchers show using virtual reality that images of farms positively influence the subjects' experience of coffee.
- The results provide insights on the psychology and power of marketing.