Ozone Hole Could Be Completely Healed by 2050
The atmosphere is on the mend, according to an article published in Science. It took almost 30 years for the ban on ozone-depleting substances to work and scientists are saying the ozone could be completely healed by the middle of the century.
The Earth's atmosphere is on the mend, according to an article published in Science. It took almost 30 years for the ban on ozone-depleting substances, like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), to work and scientists are saying if this trend continues, the ozone could be completely healed by the middle of the century. It’s a wonder what environmental policies can do for our health.
The Montreal Protocol was an international treaty signed by countries around the world in 1987 and put into action by 1989. Its signers agreed to stop the use of CFCs, lest we wanted to open the ozone further. Had use of CFC continued, NASA scientists say the ozone hole would have covered the globe by 2054. In a time without the Earth’s natural sunscreen, people with unprotected skin could experience a sunburn in under 10 minutes on a sunny day. It’s likely rates of skin cancer would also increase.
“This is just the beginning of what is a long process,” atmospheric chemist Susan Solomon, the lead author of the study, told to The New York Times. “[A]s molecules slowly decay away from the atmosphere, it’s getting just a little bit better.”
It’s estimated the hole in the ozone layer has shrunk by about 1.5 million square miles from 2000 (when the hole was at its peak) to 2015. However, the ozone is a complex system, and its health is reliant on factors beyond human influence, like volcanic activity and the weather. In the summer over Antarctica, the ozone experiences a natural depletion and recuperates during the winter.
"We can now be confident that the things we've done have put the planet on a path to heal," Solomon told Popular Science. "Which is pretty good for us, isn't it? Aren't we amazing humans, that we did something that created a situation that we decided collectively, as a world, 'Let's get rid of these molecules'? We got rid of them, and now we're seeing the planet respond."
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Research by neuroscientists at MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory helps explain how the brain regulates arousal.
The big day has come: You are taking your road test to get your driver's license. As you start your mom's car with a stern-faced evaluator in the passenger seat, you know you'll need to be alert but not so excited that you make mistakes. Even if you are simultaneously sleep-deprived and full of nervous energy, you need your brain to moderate your level of arousal so that you do your best.
A disturbing interview given by a KGB defector in 1984 describes America of today and outlines four stages of mass brainwashing used by the KGB.
- Bezmenov described this process as "a great brainwashing" which has four basic stages.
- The first stage is called "demoralization" which takes from 15 to 20 years to achieve.
- According to the former KGB agent, that is the minimum number of years it takes to re-educate one generation of students that is normally exposed to the ideology of its country.
When these companies compete, in the current system, the people lose.
- When a company reaches the top of the ladder, they typically kick it away so that others cannot climb up on it. The aim? So that another company can't compete.
- When this happens in the pharmaceutical world, certain companies stay at the top of the ladder, through broadly-protected patents, at the cost of everyday people benefitting from increased competition.
- Since companies have worked out how to legally game the system, Amin argues we need to get rid of this "one size fits all" system, which treats product innovation — "tweaks" — the same as product invention.
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